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Next, you can calculate the SHA checksum on the compressed file you downloaded and verify it against the checksum displayed on the pfSense download page. I like to use a freeware hex editor called HxD for calculating checksums. Just open the file you are interested in, navigate to "Tools" then "Checksums" and select "SHA" from the menu.
If the hash values don't match, do not run the executable file. The easiest way I have found to flash an image file to a USB drive is to use a program called balenaEtcher. Once installed, launch the application, click on "Flash from file," then navigate to the folder where you have the compressed pfSense image file. Next, select your blank USB drive and then click on "Flash.
This process will take a few minutes. After the flashing is complete, you should get a green check mark indicating that everything checks out. If you get an error from balenaEtcher, you may need to try flashing to a different USB drive. Now you can safely eject the flashed USB drive from your computer and you are ready to flash the other desktop computer.
Connect a keyboard, monitor, power cable and the flashed USB drive to your desktop computer that you installed the network card in. The monitor needs to be connected via VGA connections — DisplayPort connections won't work in my experience. Do not connect the Ethernet cables yet. Once everything is connected, power on your desktop. Some computers will automatically detect that there is a bootable USB drive inserted and they will ask you which drive you want to boot from. If this happens to you, shutdown the computer and then hold down "F12" on the keyboard and turn it back on.
This will launch the BIOS, where you can tell the computer which drive you want to boot from. After selecting this option, a script will run briefly and then the pfSense installer will launch:. First, accept the terms and conditions. Then select "Install pfSense," then choose the keymap appropriate for you. If you speak English and live in the U. Then, you will have some partitioning and redundancy options, which I just kept as simple as possible, e.
Then, select "Install. Next, you will be asked which drive you want to install pfSense onto. If you do this make sure any data you want to save is copied to an external drive first because it will erase your existing hard drive. The installer will warn you that this operation will destroy all existing data on the hard drive, which is what I wanted because I'm dedicating this machine to be my firewall and don't need to have Windows on it anymore.
After confirming this choice, a few scripts will run and the flashing process will take a couple minutes. Then, you will see a couple of confirmations that the pfSense installation was successful. A prompt will ask you if you want to manually make any final modifications, which I did not. Then, it will ask you if you want to reboot, select yes. Immediately remove the USB drive at this time before the reboot kicks back on because otherwise it will drop you at the beginning of the installation wizard again.
You should wind up at the main terminal menu once the reboot is finished. The following steps will all be completed on the keyboard and monitor connected to your new firewall:. At this point, you should be able to enter " It is a self-signed certificate, so accept the risk when prompted and continue. You can now disconnect the keyboard and monitor from your new firewall.
The rest of the steps will be completed through the web interface on your regular desktop. In this step, you will see how to configure basic settings like the setup wizard, change the TCP port, enable Secure Shell SSH, and set up hairpinning by default.
The vast majority of the information presented here and in step six below came from watching this Tom Lawrence video on pfSense — I highly recommend watching this video, it is lengthy but packed full of valuable information and has way more details than I present in this guide. First, click on the red warning dialog at the top of the page to change the password used to log into your new firewall.
Personally, I recommend high-entropy, single-use passwords with an accompanying password manager. Then, log out and log back in to test your changes. Then, the wizard will walk you through nine basic steps to get your new pfSense firewall configured.
You can leave "Hostname" and "Domain" as their defaults or set them to whatever you want. I chose " I'll go over why I used " If you want to spoof your MAC address, you can do so in this step. For the last two fields, ensure the "Block RFC Private Networks" box and the "Block bogon networks" box are checked, this will automatically add the appropriate rules to your firewall.
In step five, you can change your firewall's IP address. Most home local networks will either use The reason you may want to change this to a non-default local IP address is because if you are on someone else's network and you are trying to VPN back into your home network, then you may run into an issue where you have the same address on both ends and the system won't know if you are trying to connect to the local or remote address.
For example, I changed my local IP address to " In step six, you can set your admin password. I was a little confused to see this step inserted here since I had changed the admin password at the beginning, so I just used my same high-entropy password from before, assuming it was asking for the same password that will be used to log into the router.
Then, in step seven, you can click the "Reload" button. As this is reloading, unplug the power cable from your switch. Since the router local IP address was changed to " Unplugging the power from the switch and plugging it back in after the router is rebooted helps get all your devices reassigned. To figure out the IP addresses for the devices on your local network, you can navigate to the "Status" tab and select "DHCP Leases" to see everything listed out:.
After the reload in step seven, the wizard just skipped over steps eight and nine, so I'm not sure what happens in those steps, but we will move on and address things as necessary. Also, I enabled SSH. Then, you can choose how SSH is secured, either with a password, or keys, or both or keys only. Upon saving, give the interface a minute to update to the new port.
You may need to reload the page using the local IP address and the new port, e. The last basic setting I'll cover here is hairpinning, which means that, for example, you can have your network setup so that you can open a port to a security camera system with a public IP address. This public IP address can also be used inside your network too, which is convenient if you are at home accessing the camera system from your mobile phone on your LAN then you don't have to manually change where it connects to, because hairpinning will see that you are just trying to access a local IP and it will loop you back around by default with this setting enabled.
That is it for the basic settings. The good news is that pfSense is rather secure in it's default installation so there is not a whole lot you need to change to have a great basic foundation. Generally, the position of the pfSense developers is that if there is a more secure way to roll out pfSense, then they will just make that the default setting. I chose to disable this, so I'm not opening up an IPv6 gateway to the wide-open internet. This will open up the configuration page, then just make sure that the "IPv6 Configuration Type" is set to "None.
In this section I will go over some advanced features that you may be interested in for your home network. Here, you will see how to set up separate networks from your pfSense router so that, for example, guests can access the wide-open internet from a WiFi access point in your home but they cannot access your ASICs from that network.
If you used the i network card like I did then you have four Ethernet ports available, and if you used a Dell Optiplex like I did then you also have a fifth Ethernet port on the motherboard. Which means that I have five interfaces I can configure, four of which can be secondary local networks. What I am going to do here is keep my work desktop and my dedicated Bitcoin desktop on one network LANwork. This way, I can keep traffic from my family's web browsing totally separate from my work and Bitcoin-related activities.
You could also add a security camera network on one of the interfaces, the possibilities are endless. If you navigate to the "Interfaces" tab, then "Interface Assignments," you will see all of your available network card RJ45 ports. Now, simply add the one you are interested in by selecting it from the drop-down menu and clicking on the green "Add" box. Then, click on the hyperlink on the left-hand side of the interface you just added to open up the "General Configuration" page for that interface.
You can leave all of the other settings on their defaults, click "Save" at the bottom of the page and then "Apply Changes" at the top of the page. Now, you need to set up some firewall rules for this new LAN. Navigate to the "Firewall" tab, then "Rules. Then, click on the green box with the up arrow and the word "Add.
Now you can test your new network by physically connecting a computer to the corresponding RJ45 port on the network card and then try to access the internet. If everything worked, then you should be able to browse the wide-open web. However, you may notice that if you are on your secondary LAN and you try to log into your firewall, you will be able to do so using the " Personally, I only want my firewall accessible from my "LANwork" network. I do not want my wife and kids or guests to be able to log into the firewall from their designated "LANhome" network.
Even though I have a high-entropy password to get into the firewall, I am still going to configure the other LANs so that they cannot talk to the router. One area of concern I have, that this kind of configuration will help alleviate, is if I plug an ASIC into my network with some malicious firmware installed on it, I can keep that device isolated and prevent that security concern from affecting other devices and information that I have, which is why one of the LANs I am setting up is called "LANtest," which will be dedicated to keeping new ASICs totally isolated so I can test them in safety without allowing a potential attack to occur on my other ASICs or other devices on my home's networks.
Click on the green box with the up arrow and word "Add" in it. Having a high-entropy password to log into the router and locking down the port is a great start, but you can further sequester your LAN networks and ensure that devices on one network cannot get onto any of the other networks at all by setting up an alias for your primary LAN. Now I can add additional aliases that will be referenced in firewall rules on the other LANs to prevent "LANminers" from talking to "LANwork," "LANhome," and "LANtest" — so on and so forth until all my networks are sequestered in a way that only my firewall can see what is connected on the other networks.
With the alias created, a new firewall rule can be applied referencing this alias on the secondary LAN. Once I created the aliases and set the firewall rules, I was then able to connect my laptop to each network card RJ45 interface port and attempt to ping each of the other networks. That takes care of the advanced features that I wanted to share with you. You should now have some firewall rules set up and multiple networks sequestered.
The key points to keep in mind here is that I made this a dedicated LAN specifically for a WiFi access point for my family and guests to link to without giving them access to my pfSense firewall or any other LANs. But they still have unrestricted access to the wide-open web. Inside this kit is a WiFi router and a repeater satellite. The basic idea is that the WiFi router gets connected to the pfSense firewall directly with an Ethernet cable on the igb2 "LANhome" port.
Then, the WiFi router broadcasts the signal to the repeater satellite in another area of the house. Like this, I can increase the WiFi signal coverage to a wider area. Now my family, guests and I can browse the wide-open web from our devices via WiFi with no dropouts in the whole house and I don't have to be concerned with anyone accessing my sensitive work network, or my ASIC network or my test network.
WireGuard is a VPN software protocol that can be installed on your pfSense firewall, then you can use that protocol to define how you construct your tunnels with your VPN provider. This prevents your ISP from seeing your data or where it's final destination is. WireGuard is a recent addition to the lineup of VPN protocols, it is open-source, and comparatively "light," with less code and faster speeds than some others.
The speed part was key for me considering that added latency can decrease an ASICs efficiency. Another benefit of VPNs is that your geographic location can be spoofed, meaning that if you are in one part of the world, you can use a VPN tunnel to a VPN provider's server in another part of the world and it will appear as though your internet traffic is coming from that server.
This is beneficial for people who live in authoritative countries where access to certain websites and services is restricted. Keep in mind that you have to trust that your VPN provider is not logging your IP address or that it could or would turn this information over to authorities if pressed. Mullvad collects no personal information about you, not even an email address. Plus, it accepts bitcoin or cash so you can pay for the service without the risk of linking your banking details.
Mullvad also has a "no-logging" policy, which you can read here. For my specific use case here, I will be using a VPN to ensure my ISP does not see that I am mining Bitcoin and to also prevent my mining pool, Slush Pool , from seeing my real IP address — not because I am doing anything illegal or because I think Slush Pool is logging my IP address, but simply because these are tumultuous times with a quickly-changing political environment and the things I do legally today could very well be outlawed tomorrow.
Or, if some legislation was passed making it illegal for a person to operate a Bitcoin miner in the United States without a money transmitter's license, for example, then I could spoof my location so that if Slush Pool's hand were forced to block IP addresses coming from the United States, I could continue mining as it would appear my hash rate was originating from outside the United States.
Considering that the blockchain is forever and the future is uncertain, I think it is worth taking the time to figure out how to guard my privacy. By taking steps today to increase my privacy and security, I can ensure that my freedom and my pursuit of happiness are guarded. The vast majority of the information presented in this section comes from watching Christian McDonald videos on YouTube.
I want to specifically point out this video of his on using the WireGuard package in pfSense to set up Mullvad in a way to have multiple tunnels that allow load balancing your traffic seamlessly:. However, Mullvad does accept bitcoin and does not require any identifying information.
Before I show you how to set up your Mullvad subscription, we'll get the WireGuard package installed to your pfSense firewall. Then, we'll set up a Mullvad account and generate the configuration files. Then, we can get multiple tunnels set up and do some fancy configurations in pfSense.
Mullvad does not collect any information from you such as name, phone number, email, etc. Mullvad generates a unique account number and this is the only identifying piece of information you get related to your account, so write it down and secure it.
Next, select your payment method. You will be presented with a Bitcoin address QR code to send your payment to. Check the mempool to see when your Bitcoin transaction gets confirmed. You may need to wait a while depending on network congestion. After confirmation on chain, the Mullvad account is topped off and should show that you have time remaining.
Make considerations about selecting a server location from Mullvad's long list of servers. If you're planning on running ASICs behind your VPN, then I recommend connecting to a server relatively close to your actual geographic location to try and help reduce any latency as much as possible.
The basic idea here is that I want to have a primary tunnel set up for the ASICs, but I also want a secondary tunnel setup with another server in a different geographic location just in case the primary tunnel connection goes offline. This way, my mining internet traffic will automatically switch over to the other tunnel and there will be no interruption in concealing my public IP address or encrypting my traffic data.
To do this, I will need as many key pairs as I want tunnels. One Mullvad subscription includes up to five key pairs. Then click on "Generate Keys" for as many key pairs as you want, up to five keys. Then click on "Manage Keys" below that to see your list. Be cautious about sharing this information with anyone, you want to keep your Mullvad keys private.
You can see that I generated four keys for this guide, which I will destroy after I'm finished using them as examples. Each configuration file needs to be set up with a specific Mullvad server of your choosing. If you try to assign two tunnels to the same key, pfSense will encounter problems with your VPN. Repeat this process for as many keys as you generated, selecting a different server for each unique key and generating the configuration file.
I found it helpful to name the configuration file as the city and server used. WireGuard will automatically generate the public key when you paste the private key and hit the "tab" key on your keyboard. You can verify that the public key was correctly generated by comparing it to the key on the Mullvad website that you generated earlier.
Repeat this process for as many tunnels as you want. Each tunnel will get its own peer. You can add a "Peer" by first navigating to the "Peer" tab next to the "Tunnels" tab that you were just on. Then click on "Add Peer.
Repeat this process for as many peers as you have tunnels. At this point, you should be able to navigate to the "Status" tab and observe the handshakes taking place by clicking on "Show Peers" in the lower right-hand corner. After all of your tunnels are added, click on the blue hyperlink next to each added tunnel to configure the interface.
After clicking on "Add A New Gateway," you will be presented with the below pop-up dialog. Once you are back at the interface configuration page, click on "Save" at the bottom of the page. Then click on "Apply Changes" at the top of the page. Repeat that process to create a gateway for each tunnel interface you added. Physically, farms are rooms with a large number of computers and servers that take on tasks for mining.
There are also home-mining farms. They differ from ordinary PCs, by being specially assempled and designed for mining. Home farms can bring profitability, but users often face the problem of excessive electricity consumption and overheating of the computer at home which makes mining unprofitable.
One of the main resources into which a miner has to invest is electricity. In addition, a large number of processors require an appropriate cooling and ventilation system. Cloud mining is a process of obtaining Bitcoins with the use of a remote data processing center with the general computational power. This allows the users to mine Bitcoins or alternative crypto currencies without controlling the equipment directly.
Another option is a private virtual service, where a user installs the mining software. Finally, a user may take the computational powers themselves by using already the results of their work and not coming in touch with physical or virtual servers. Web-mining, or "hidden mining" — is an alternative method of cryptocurrency mining through the web browsers of users of websites. In fact, owners of Internet resources can convert the capacities of visitors' computers into cryptocurrency.
There are also viruses that make computer capacities work for cryptocurrency mining. Profitability of mining is the level of reward that a user of the blockchain network receives providing of his technical capacities for verifying transactions and solution of network tasks, resulting in a new data block on the network.
The profitability depends on two related factors. The first one consists in the complexity of the process itself, on which the reward depends the more difficult the process is, the smaller amounts of tasks can be made per technical resource unit and, consequently, the less reward you will receive.
The second factor is the cost of bitcoin or other crypto currency. That is, how much your reward is in terms of fiat currencies. However, this indicator does not take into account additional investments: rental of premises, management of farms and energy costs. Specifically for Bitcoin, the number of mining types has significantly decreased. If other cryptocurrencies can still be mined using video cards, processors, hard drives, etc.
A central processing unit or CPU is an integrated circuit that is an essential part of the hardware of a personal computer or any other equipment. Currently, any modern, high-performance computer is equipped with a powerful central processor with a high frequency of operation and several cores.
Accordingly, if a miner has a good personal computer, then he will not have to invest hundreds or thousands of dollars in equipment. Mining on a video card is the process of mining cryptocurrency using graphic processors GPUs. To do this, user needs a powerful video card in his home computer or a specially assembled farm of several devices in one system. If miner is interested in why GPUs are used for this process, then the answer is very simple.
The thing is that video cards are initially developed to process a large amount of data by performing the same operations, as is the case with video processing. The same picture is observed in cryptocurrency mining, because here the hashing process is just the same.
The microcircuit is a semiconductor. Used in cases where the device is designed to perform logical operations, such as and, or, nand and others. An application-specific integrated circuit, or ASIC , is just a chip designed solely for one type of work — decryption of a specific algorithm. To mine Bitcoins, this is SHA Due to the lack of multitasking, devices show significantly more power than those that are suitable for all algorithms at once.
To describe the table above, ASIC uses a lot of electricity, has a high price and very user-friendly but the price is expensive and ASIC can't change the mining algorithm. Meanwhile, GPU is using a fairly low power compared to ASIC, can adapt to various algorithms, cheap compared to other options, easy to get, and easy to use. Finally, FPGA can change algorithm but not user-friendly, you'll need to be able to create a Verilog program.
Also, FPGA was quite expensive and hard to get, but now you can find them easily and cheaply online. The first block is known as the genesis block. The first transaction recorded in the first block was a single transaction paying the reward of 50 new bitcoins to its creator.
Blockchain mining. The mining ecosystem.