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Nothing happens at all unless someone transfers some coins to someone else. So, x sends money to y , through a digital wallet that stores the cryptocurrency. Unlike conventional currency, however, that payment is not facilitated by a central bank, clearing house, or system. Rather, it is transferred directly from person to person — or, in the language of crypto, from peer to peer.
In this way, crypto transactions tend to be quicker and cheaper than transfers in conventional currency. As we said above, the blockchain is the technology that enables cryptocurrency to function in a decentralized manner. In its simplest terms, it is a record or ledger in which the details of transactions are recorded — yet, it does have some specific features. This way, you cannot change the information in one block without changing the entire chain — making hacking extremely difficult.
If x gives money to y , this transaction will be recorded in a block: the sender and recipient, the sum, and a timestamp. Crucially, though, the blockchain is not located in any one specific place. All of these different versions are updated simultaneously: change one and you have to change them all.
Remember that cryptographic proof? Bitcoin mining — comes in. The chances of finding it are apparently one in 14 trillion. Given that this process is so difficult, the security of the blockchain is assured. Importantly, though, the miners get something out of it, too.
If a miner finds the right hash, they are rewarded in Bitcoin. Rather, currencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum have become serious stores of value. Unlike fiat currencies, with central banks, there is no central authority behind cryptocurrency to stabilize its value. However, cryptocurrencies maintain some value — however volatile — because people are willing to buy them and are willing to accept them as payment. In short, cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin have value because people see them as valuable.
This fact is determined by different factors too. Originally, Bitcoin was seen specifically as a fast and cheap solution for transferring money worldwide. Demand increased, while supply remained stable. How does supply and demand affect the value of a currency? Monetary policy is the series of techniques that governments and banks employ to control the amount of money in circulation.
Bitcoin does this by maintaining a limit on the number of coins. Remember that miners receive new Bitcoin for their trouble? This is the only way that new Bitcoin enters the system. But by keeping the coin reasonably scarce Bitcoin, for example, is limited to 21 million coins , the value remains high. The cryptographic system ensures that every transaction is unique and that the currency can only be counterfeited with a huge amount of effort.
As we saw above, every copy of the blockchain would need to be changed simultaneously for a fraudulent transaction to be recorded. Similarly, whilst physical currency can be damaged, crypto has extra security in this regard. Being digital-only, cryptocurrency is theoretically permanent in its existence and non-damageable.
Consequently, then, is crypto something worth investing in? Indeed, there are stories of big returns — and big losses. For example, in early , Bitcoin reached parity with the dollar , meaning that you could trade one Bitcoin for one USD. Or perhaps you joined the revolution late and bought some Ethereum, only to turn around and sell it off for a quick buck. Either way, your crypto transaction may impact your tax bill.
For better or worse, capital gains tax rules apply to cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. This is exactly what happens when you sell more traditional investments, like stocks or funds, at a gain. And just like if you sell any other investment at a loss, if your crypto investment has fallen in value when you sell it, you are able to claim a capital loss, which you may be able to use to offset other income taxes. If you purchase goods or services with cryptocurrency , your purchase counts as a sale of that crypto.
If you earn cryptocurrency by mining it, or receive it as a promotion or as payment for goods or services, it counts as part of your regular taxable income. You owe tax on the entire fair market value of the crypto on the day you received it, at your regular income tax rate. The standard Form tax return now asks whether you engaged in any virtual currency transactions during the year.
You must keep track of all your cryptocurrency transactions, including how much you paid for crypto, how long you held it for and how much you sold it for, as well as receipts for each transaction. While your crypto exchange may provide a B reporting your crypto transactions to both the IRS and you, it might not record the cost basis, or original amount you paid for your crypto, if you transfer coins between offline cold wallets and your account.
Tools like Koinly and Cointracker connect to exchanges and crypto wallets to track your crypto transactions and complete the forms you need to file your cryptocurrency taxes. If you keep records in software like Koinly or CoinTracker, you can connect them with your online tax software of choice.
Then use the online tax software to file your overall state and federal tax returns. For those looking for one-stop services, TokenTax provides a full suite of accounting services to track and prepare both your crypto and regular taxes. Preparing for cryptocurrency taxes can be complicated, especially since the laws surrounding them are constantly evolving.
If you think you might owe cryptocurrency taxes in the future, here are six ways to help minimize them:. If you hold a crypto investment for at least one year before selling, your gains qualify for the preferential long-term capital gains rate. As with any investment, you can take advantage of crypto gains by also claiming losses on other investments the year you realize your profit. If you are about to cash in a large crypto investment, look through the rest of your portfolio to see if there are other losing investments you could sell to offset your gains.
If you have the luxury of time on your side, you can always try to wait out a lower tax rate, says Jeff Hoopes, an associate professor at the University of North Carolina and research director of the UNC Tax Center. While it might seem like a low-cost activity in theory, mining crypto comes with considerable expenses, including computers, servers, electricity and internet service provider charges.
But this generally only makes sense if you planned on donating to charity already. David is a financial writer based out of Delaware. He specializes in making investing, insurance and retirement planning understandable. Before writing full-time, David worked as a financial advisor and passed the CFP exam. John Schmidt is the Assistant Assigning Editor for investing and retirement. Before joining Forbes Advisor, John was a senior writer at Acorns and editor at market research group Corporate Insight.
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