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You can also use the powerful precompiled contract system to place precompiled contracts in each of the accounts together with gas-cost rules. In this case we're placing a token value in each of the pre-compiled contracts accounts, standard practice to avoid the first transactor getting stung for using them. We're also setting them up similarly to the public network, with each of the four algorithms in the first four slots together with the gas costs from the public network.
For example, to create an algorithm which placed a simple byte-wise XOR checksum of the input into the output:. Finally we set up the network. To set up your PoA private network, first determine the network ID of each node which will be sitting on it. Author a JSON file similar to that above but with the network. Finding the node ID is easy with flu : when it is run simply look out for a line beginning:.
Determine, of those nodes, which will be able to sign new blocks. For each of them make sure you have at least one of the keys listed in your JSON file's options. Running the flu client on a fresh machine or with a fresh --path directory will result in a keystore with a single, freshly generated, account key. The client perhaps on later invocations can use this account to sign blocks if it is included in the options.
You may author the rest of the JSON file as you choose, perhaps altering the extraData genesis field to customise the chain and avoid it being confused with other, older or newer chains. When ready, you can start one or more nodes with this file let's assume it is called myconfig.
Interactive Console 2. Mining 2. PoA Private Chains 2. Mix 3. Project Editor 3. Here we have to keep track of the balances and other details of different people states and the details of what happens between them on blockchain transactions. Different platforms handle this differently.
Here we will see how Bitcoin and Ethereum handle this. The transfer of value in bitcoin is actioned through transactions. Firstly, bitcoin UTXOs cannot be partially spent. If a bitcoin user spends 0. Secondly, at the most fundamental level, bitcoin does not maintain user account balances. With bitcoin, a user simply holds the private keys to one or more UTXO at any given point in time. Digital wallets make it seem like the bitcoin blockchain automatically stores and organizes user account balances and so forth.
This is not the case. The UTXO system in bitcoin works well, in part, due to the fact that digital wallets are able to facilitate most of the tasks associated with transactions. Including but not limited to:. One analogy for the transactions in the UTXO model is paper bills banknotes.
Each bill can only be spent once since, once spent, the UTXO is removed from the pool. In contrast to the information above, the Ethereum world state is able to manage account balances, and more. The state of Ethereum is not an abstract concept. As with all other blockchains, the Ethereum blockchain begins life at its own genesis block.
From this point genesis state at block 0 onward, activities such as transactions, contracts, and mining will continually change the state of the Ethereum blockchain. In Ethereum, an example of this would be an account balance stored in the state trie which changes every time a transaction, in relation to that account, takes place.
Importantly, data such as account balances are not stored directly in the blocks of the Ethereum blockchain. Only the root node hashes of the transaction trie, state trie and receipts trie are stored directly in the blockchain. This is illustrated in the diagram below.
You will also notice, from the above diagram, that the root node hash of the storage trie where all of the smart contract data is kept actually points to the state trie, which in turn points to the blockchain. We will zoom in and cover all of this in more detail soon.
There are two vastly different types of data in Ethereum; permanent data and ephemeral data. An example of permanent data would be a transaction. Once a transaction has been fully confirmed, it is recorded in the transaction trie; it is never altered. An example of ephemeral data would be the balance of a particular Ethereum account address. The balance of an account address is stored in the state trie and is altered whenever transactions against that particular account occur.
It makes sense that permanent data, like mined transactions, and ephemeral data, like account balances, should be stored separately. Ethereum uses trie data structures to manage data. The record-keeping for Ethereum is just like that in a bank. The bank tracks how much money each debit card has, and when we need to spend money, the bank checks its record to make sure we have enough balance before approving the transaction.
An incrementing nonce can be implemented to counteract this type of attack. In Ethereum, every account has a public viewable nonce and every time a transaction is made, the nonce is increased by one. This can prevent the same transaction being submitted more than once. Note, this nonce is different from the Ethereum proof of work nonce, which is a random value.
Like most things in computer architecture, both models have trade-offs. Some blockchains, notably Hyperledger, adopt UTXO because they can benefit from the innovation derived from the Bitcoin blockchain. We will look into more technologies that are built on top of these two record-keeping models. The state trie contains a key and value pair for every account which exists on the Ethereum network. A storage trie is where all of the contract data lives. Each Ethereum account has its own storage trie.
Each Ethereum block has its own separate transaction trie. A block contains many transactions. The order of the transactions in a block are of course decided by the miner who assembles the block. The path to a specific transaction in the transaction trie, is via the RLP encoding of the index of where the transaction sits in the block. Mined blocks are never updated; the position of the transaction in a block is never changed.
The main Ethereum clients use two different database software solutions to store their tries.