If the block of assembled transactions is accepted and verified by other miners, then the miner receives a block reward. Bitcoin halved its mining reward—from The block reward is halved every , blocks or roughly every four years. In , it was In , the reward amount declined to 25, and in , it became In Bitcoin's most recent halving event, the reward was changed to 6. Another incentive for bitcoin miners to participate in the process is transaction fees.
In addition to rewards, miners also receive fees from any transactions contained in that block of transactions. As Bitcoin reaches its planned limit of 21 million expected around , miners will be rewarded with fees for processing transactions that network users will pay. These fees ensure that miners still have the incentive to mine and keep the network going. The idea is that competition for these fees will cause them to remain low after halving events are finished.
At the heart of bitcoin mining is a math puzzle that miners are supposed to solve in order to earn bitcoin rewards. The puzzle is called proof of work PoW , a reference to the computational work expended by miners to mine bitcoin. Though it is often referred to as complex, the mining puzzle is actually fairly simple and can be described as guesswork.
The miners in Bitcoin's network try to come up with a digit hexadecimal number, called a hash, that is less than or equal to a target hash in SHA, Bitcoin's PoW algorithm. The systems that guess a number less than or equal to the hash are rewarded with bitcoin.
Here's an example to explain the process. Say you ask friends to guess a number between 1 and that you have thought of and written down on a piece of paper. If you are thinking of the number 19 and a friend comes up with 21, they lose because 21 is greater than But if someone guesses 16 and another friend guesses 18, then the latter wins because 18 is closer to 19 than In very simple terms, the bitcoin mining math puzzle is the same situation described above except with digit hexadecimal numbers and thousands of computing systems.
One of the terms you will often come across in bitcoin mining literature is mining difficulty. Mining difficulty refers to the difficulty of solving the math puzzle and generating bitcoin. Mining difficulty influences the rate at which bitcoins are generated. Mining difficulty changes every 2, blocks or approximately every two weeks. The succeeding difficulty level depends on how efficient miners were in the preceding cycle.
It is also affected by the number of new miners that have joined Bitcoin's network because it increases the hash rate or the amount of computing power deployed to mine the cryptocurrency. In and , as the price of bitcoin rose, more miners joined its network, and the average time to discover a block of transactions fell to nine minutes from 10 minutes. But the opposite can also be true. That is, the more miners there are competing for a solution, the more difficult the problem will become.
If computational power is taken off the network, the difficulty adjusts downward to make mining easier. The difficulty level for mining in March was That is, the chances of a computer producing a hash below the target is 1 in To put that in perspective, you are about 91, times more likely to win the Powerball jackpot with a single lottery ticket than you are to pick the correct hash on a single try.
At the end of the day, bitcoin mining is a business venture. Profits generated from its output—bitcoin—depend on the investment made into its inputs. There are three main costs of bitcoin mining:. The total costs for these three inputs should be less than the output—in this case, the bitcoin price—for miners to generate profits from their venture.
Considering the skyrocketing price of bitcoin, the idea of minting your own cryptocurrency might sound like an attractive proposition. However, despite what Bitcoin proponents tell you, mining the cryptocurrency is not a hobby of any sort. It is an expensive venture with a high probability of failure. As illustrated in the section on mining difficulty, there is no guarantee that you will earn bitcoin rewards even after spending considerable expenses and effort.
Aggregating mining systems to run a small business that mines bitcoin might offer a way out. However, even such businesses are at the mercy of the cryptocurrency's volatile prices. If the cryptocurrency's price crashes as it did in , then it becomes uneconomic to run bitcoin mining systems, and small miners will be forced to go out of business. The decline in the number of bitcoins awarded to miners every four years makes the activity even more unappealing. Given the considerable difficulty inherent in the economics of mining bitcoin, the activity is now dominated by large mining companies that have operations spanning multiple continents.
AntPool, the world's biggest bitcoin mining company, runs mining pools in many countries. Many bitcoin mining companies have also gone public, although their valuations are relatively modest. For most of Bitcoin's short history, its mining process has remained an energy-intensive process. In the decade after it was launched, bitcoin mining was concentrated in China, a country that relies on fossil fuels like coal to produce a majority of its electricity. Not surprisingly, bitcoin mining's astronomical energy costs have drawn the attention of climate change activists who blame the activity for rising emissions.
According to some estimates, the cryptocurrency's mining process consumes as much electricity as entire countries. But bitcoin proponents have released studies that claim that the cryptocurrency is powered largely by renewable energy sources. One thing to remember about these studies is that they are based on conjectures and self-reported data from mining pools. For example, a Coinshares report from makes several assumptions regarding the power sources for miners included in their assessment of the bitcoin mining ecosystem.
Two developments have contributed to the evolution and composition of bitcoin mining as it is today. The first one is the manufacture of custom mining machines for bitcoin. Because bitcoin mining is essentially guesswork, arriving at the right answer before another miner has almost everything to do with how fast your computer can produce hashes. In the early days of Bitcoin, desktop computers with ordinary CPUs dominated bitcoin mining.
But they began taking a long time to discover transactions on the cryptocurrency's network as the algorithm's difficulty level increased with time. According to some estimates, it would have taken "several hundred thousand years on average" using CPUs to find a valid block at the early difficulty level. Over time, miners realized that graphics cards, also known as graphics processing units GPUs , were more effective and faster at mining.
But they consumed a lot of power for individual hardware systems that weren't really required for mining the cryptocurrency. Nowadays, miners use custom mining machines, called ASIC miners, that are equipped with specialized chips for faster and more efficient bitcoin mining. They cost anywhere from several hundred to tens of thousands of dollars. Today, bitcoin mining is so competitive that it can only be done profitably with the most up-to-date ASICs. Even with the newest unit at your disposal, one computer is rarely enough to compete with mining pools—groups of miners who combine their computing power and split the mined bitcoin between them.
Bitcoin forks have also influenced the makeup of the bitcoin miner network. Between 1 in 16 trillion odds, scaling difficulty levels, and the massive network of users verifying transactions, one block of transactions is verified roughly every 10 minutes. But it's important to remember that 10 minutes is a goal, not a rule. The Bitcoin network can currently process just under four transactions per second, with transactions logged in the blockchain every 10 minutes.
By comparison, Visa can process somewhere around 65, transactions per second. As the network of Bitcoin users continues to grow, however, the number of transactions made in 10 minutes will eventually exceed the number of transactions that can be processed in 10 minutes. At that point, waiting times for transactions will begin and continue to get longer, unless a change is made to the Bitcoin protocol. This issue at the heart of the Bitcoin protocol is known as scaling.
Though bitcoin miners generally agree that something must be done to address scaling, there is less consensus about how to do it. There have been two major solutions proposed to address the scaling problem. Developers have suggested either creating a secondary "off-chain" layer of Bitcoin that would allow for faster transactions that can be verified by the blockchain later or increasing the number of transactions that each block can store.
With less data to verify per block, the first solution would make transactions faster and cheaper for miners. The second would deal with scaling by allowing for more information to be processed every 10 minutes by increasing block size. The program that miners voted to add to the Bitcoin protocol is called a segregated witness , or SegWit. This term is an amalgamation of segregated, meaning separate, and witness, which refers to signatures on a Bitcoin transaction.
Segregated witness, then, means to separate transaction signatures from a block and attach them as an extended block. Less than a month later, in August , a group of miners and developers initiated a hard fork , leaving the Bitcoin network to create a new currency using the same codebase as Bitcoin.
Although this group agreed with the need for a solution to scaling, they worried that adopting SegWit technology would not fully address the scaling problem. Instead, they went with the second solution of increasing the number of transactions that each block can store. The resulting currency, called Bitcoin Cash , increased the block size to 8MB in order to accelerate the verification process to allow a performance of around 2 million transactions per day.
Bitcoin mining is the process that generates bitcoin. It consists of mining systems competing with each other to solve a mathematical puzzle and win bitcoin as a reward. Bitcoin mining is a costly hobby without guaranteed results. Crypto mining is still one of the most effective methods to profit from the rise of digital currency.
They get a portion of the cryptocurrency linked with the blockchain they are members of as a reward for addressing these difficulties. A common misconception about crypto mining is that it is simply used to create new coins. However, cryptocurrency mining also involves adding cryptocurrency transactions to a distributed ledger after they are validated on a blockchain network. Additionally, crypto mining prevents a distributed network from double spending.
Due to the fact that it must be debited from one account and credited to another whenever a member spends it, cryptocurrency has a similar impact on the ledger to physical currency. The problem with digital currencies is that they are easy to manipulate. It is therefore up to the miners to prevent double-spending.
During this period, new coins are generated by the network to reward the miners. The mining process is crucial to validating transactions on distributed ledgers because there is no centralized authority. By participating in the validation process, miners are rewarded with newly minted coins, which incentivizes them to secure the network. Only verified cryptominers are able to mine and validate transactions when a proof-of-work consensus protocol is in place.
It also makes the network completely unaffected by external attacks. The machine must be operated 24 hours a day, and electricity bills will be high. Even then, earning bitcoins is not guaranteed. Activists believe that bitcoin mining is environmentally unfriendly due to its heavy electricity use. As much electricity as an entire country is drawn by bitcoin mining. With the transition to renewable energy.
To mine bitcoins, you need special hardware. It consists of a specialized chip called an ASIC. The majority of miners use ASIC chips. You must now download the software required to connect your mining rig to the Bitcoin blockchain once you have your Bitcoin mining rig set up. New blocks are added to the blockchain by the software, and Bitcoin mining can be there with several free software programs.
Despite the latest hardware and software, an individual would not be able to mine Bitcoin. Large mining farms backed by major mining companies are not competitive for small miners. A Bitcoin mining pool provides a solution. The group can use the combined computing power of individual miners to compete collectively. The pool operator charges fees and rewards somewhat lower than personal mining. However, by using a pool, you can ensure frequent rewards.
Now that you have chosen a pool, you can begin mining bitcoins. While single Bitcoin miners may struggle to make a profit, individuals joining Bitcoin mining pools are far more likely to profit. However, the amount of money a Bitcoin miner may make stands determined by several factors.
Returns on Bitcoin mining must be sufficient to cover the cost of electricity and initial investment in mining equipment to generate a profit. Bitcoin miners concentrate on low-cost power, low-cost technology, and a solid Bitcoin mining pool to offer themselves the most excellent chance of success.
Another factor to consider is the tax on Bitcoins that are mined. It is unlikely that a miner will make a profit, but you may be required to pay tax depending on the jurisdiction. Furthermore, the profitability of Bitcoin mining operations is governed by cryptocurrency prices.
Bitcoin must maintain a high price to compensate for mining equipment and power expenses paid for in fiat money. Covid Vaccine Certificate. Vaccine Certificate Correction. Vaccine Certificate Verification. Vaccine Certificate by Mobile Number. Vaccine Certificate by Aadhar. Cowin App Download.
Protect your money the most secure and advanced encryption algorithms. Them impossible to crack. The attempt of hacking would require huge amounts of expensive electricity and computing power of a supercomputer. You are the only one who can get access to your wallet.
At least so say the developers. Using lbry users can create and share content such as music, movies, paintings, etc. In the process of downloading content the user may require a fee for access. System that by combining computing power helps to solve problems in medicine, biology, mathematics, climatology, astrophysics and other Sciences.
Positioning itself as the fork is fully protected from ASIC miners. Oppose monopolization of mining. Is interesting in possibility of obtaining coins is not only mining graphics card, but also the generation of new coins with the coins already in the wallet. The main use of Namecoin is a censorship resistant top level domain.
The target - is to prove that the electronic currency can be a good class of investment assets. The idea is to use the newest blockchain technology to create anything that can represent the community and the team, using a decentralized Autonomous organization with a self-design to keep it truly decentralized.
Stanford Folding. Uses your computer to simulate the process of protein folding in the human body. The results obtained in this study will be used for production and obtaining new medical preparations, methods of treatment and maybe with your help will be open new discoveries in medicine and research protein in particular, and for the treatment of deadly diseases.
The advantage of VIA is that the confirmation of intellectual property rights and the performance of services is accomplished through publication in the blockchain. DNotes — peer-to-peer decentralized cryptocurrency transmitted over the Internet, which enables instant payments to anyone in the world. It quickly and safely with a minimum commission according to the developers. Vcash was designed as an innovative and promising. The transactions of this currency are available to everyone without any restrictions or censorship.
It is one of the easiest cryptocurrencies to mine. It keeps all your mining activity private among other peers. This crypto can also hide transaction sums and addresses. Zcash is a digital currency that can be spent, sent, and received via mobile phone, digital wallet, and computer. It provides you fast and confidential payments for eCommerce websites. This crypto allows transactions to be verified without revealing the sender, receiver, or amount of the transactions. Zcash is one of the most secure privacy coins ever to enter the cryptocurrency sector.
Horizen is one of the best cryptocurrency to mine with secure blockchain ecosystem that enables developers and businesses to build a private blockchain. It provides ZEN cryptocurrency with full encryption to protect trading communications. This digital currency enables you to perform transactions anonymously with good privacy. Ethereum Classic is an open-source, blockchain-based distributed computing platform that executes smart contracts.
It enables you to manage ETC without the need for banks. Ethereum Classic enables you to mine old proof of work without any hassle. It is one of the most profitable and best coins to mine. Vertcoin is a digital currency that is created to make mining cryptocurrency accessible to everyone.
It uses a proof of work mechanism to issue new coins and secure trading transactions. The blockchain of Vertcoin is maintained by the people who are mining with modern graphics cards. It can be easily mined at home just by using a computer with decent hardware. Beam is a confidential cryptocurrency that enables you to perform trading transactions by maintaining privacy.
It allows you to trade assets on blockchain from any wallet. This crypto has automatic swaps feature to exchange confidential assets without any third party. It can be used with beam wallets to send and receive your crypto and check transaction history.
This digital currency can be easily accessed from PC and mobile devices. Haven is a Proof-of-Work cryptocurrency that is based on the CryptoNote protocol. It is one of the easiest cryptocurrencies to mine that provides you a private and stable currency that can be accessed without any hassle.
This digital currency can be used to store digital assets outside banks without giving up privacy and control. Haven can be used to securely buy any online products without any settlement. It stores your fund in web Haven Vault that is optimized for a mobile platform. Komodo is an open-source blockchain platform that enables you to own your host token sales.
It allows your money to be moved between private addresses without leaving any public data. Komodo offers the Antara framework that provides you tools for end-to-end blockchain development. Quarkchain is a blockchain infrastructure that provides Quark cryptocurrency to mine with GPU. It enables you to easily generate QRK through the mining process.
It is one of the easiest cryptocurrencies to mine, which provides high flexibility, scalability, and usability. Monacoin is a digital currency that enables you to create blocks faster without any hassle. You can store this digital currency in exchange through Monappy online platform. It enables you to exchange coins for digital assets like electronics, coupons, and more.
Monacoin can be used through third-party mobile applications and online games to provide tips. Step 1 Open any good cloud mining website in your browser. Step 4 Add order information like the name of the crypto, hash rate, mining pool, etc. GPU mining was the basic Bitcoin mining method before This mining process has been replaced rapidly by ASIC miners.
GPU mining is still profitable if you already have a GPU and your mining costs are less than the value of the mined digital currency. GPU is an important unit of the computer that is responsible for rendering and displaying images and videos. Graphic Processing Units are optimized for processing large blocks of data. Therefore, it is better than the CPU for mining. If you mine any cryptocurrency with GPU, you do not require to frequently switch between two tasks.
So, it can process more hashes simultaneously. Cryptocurrency mining is a process in which transactions for various forms of crypto mining are confirmed and added to the digital ledger of Blockchain. The underlying cost of mining is the energy consumed. Thus for miners, whatever revenue they generate from the mining process has to cover these costs and the original amount invested in the mining hardware.
The earnings also depend on the cryptocurrency being mined. Now, this will be a lot more than the profits produced from mining Ethereum , which is mined using high-end GPUs. Skip to content. Following are some of the best cryptocurrencies to Mine with GPU: Bitcoin — Most profitable cryptocurrency to mine Ethereum — Best for smart contracts and corporate miners Monero — Best for beginner miners Ravencoin — Best for low investment mining Bitcoin Gold — Best for individual miners Feathercoin — Best for beginner miners Dogecoin — Best for low investment mining Litecoin — Best for groups mining.
Stacking does not require large computing power. Here are the risks involved in cryptocurrency mining: More susceptible to fraud: It is easy for scammers to perform crypto mining scams. This generally involves taking your earned cryptos. So you need to research crypto mining platforms by reading blogs and reviews before using them. Earning less money: You make less money with crypto mining because the services and equipment are expensive, so you get a very little amount out of it.
Computing hardware: Miners should own the latest hardware to compute with an increasing need for successful crypto mining. They require specific hardware that can be costly.
At its peak, cryptocurrency mining was an arms race that led to increased demand for graphics processing units GPUs. Despite the increased demand for GPUs, the crypto mining gold rush quickly came to an end, as the difficulty of mining top cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin increased just as quickly. Mining cryptocurrencies, however, can still be profitable. So, what is crypto mining, is it legal, and how can you get started?
This article takes a closer look at these questions. Most people think of crypto mining simply as a way of creating new coins. Crypto mining, however, also involves validating cryptocurrency transactions on a blockchain network and adding them to a distributed ledger. Most importantly, crypto mining prevents the double-spending of digital currency on a distributed network.
Like physical currencies, when one member spends cryptocurrency, the digital ledger must be updatedby debiting one account and crediting the other. However, the challenge of a digital currency is that digital platforms are easily manipulated. This gives miners the extra responsibility of securing the network from double-spending.
Meanwhile, new coins are generated to reward miners for their work in securing the network. Since distributed ledgers lack a centralized authority, the mining process is crucial for validating transactions. Miners are, therefore, incentivized to secure the network by participating in the transaction validation process that increases their chances of winning newly minted coins.
In order to ensure that only verified crypto miners can mine and validate transactions, a proof-of-work PoW consensus protocol has been put into place. PoW also secures the network from any external attacks. Crypto mining is somewhat similar to mining precious metals. While miners of precious metals will unearth gold, silver, or diamonds, crypto miners will trigger the release of new coins into circulation. For miners to be rewarded with new coins, they need to deploy machines that solve complex mathematical equations in the form of cryptographic hashes.
A hash is a truncated digital signature of a chunk of data. Hashes are generated to secure data transferred on a public network. Miners compete with their peers to zero in on a hash value generated by a crypto coin transaction, and the first miner to crack the code gets to add the block to the ledger and receive the reward.
Each block uses a hash function to refer to the previous block, forming an unbroken chain of blocks that leads back to the first block. For this reason, peers on the network can easily verify whether certain blocks are valid and whether the miners who validated each block properly solved the hash to receive the reward. Over time, as miners deploy more advanced machines to solve PoW, the difficulty of equations on the network increases. At the same time, competition among miners rises, increasing the scarcity of the cryptocurrency as a result.
Mining cryptocurrencies requires computers with special software specifically designed to solve complicated, cryptographic mathematic equations. Over the years, however, CPU chips have become impractical for mining most cryptocurrencies due to the increasing difficulty levels.
In addition, the GPUs in the mining rig must be connected to a reliable internet connection at all times. Each crypto miner is also required to be a member of an online crypto mining pool as well. Different methods of mining cryptocurrencies require different amounts of time. However, many find CPU mining to be too slow and impractical today because it takes months to accrue even a small amount of profit, given the high electrical and cooling costs and increased difficulty across the board.
GPU mining is another method of mining cryptocurrencies. It maximizes computational power by bringing together a set of GPUs under one mining rig. For GPU mining, a motherboard and cooling system is required for the rig. Similarly, ASIC mining is yet another method of mining cryptocurrencies. However, they are expensive, meaning that, as mining difficulty increases, they quickly become obsolete. Cloud mining allows individual miners to leverage the power of major corporations and dedicated crypto mining facilities.
Individual crypto miners can identify both free and paid cloud mining hosts online and rent a mining rig for a specific amount of time. This method is the most hands-free way to mine cryptocurrencies. Mining pools allow miners to combine their computational resources in order to increase their chances of finding and mining blocks on a blockchain. If a mining pool succeeds, the reward is distributed across the mining pool, in proportion to the amount of resources that each miner contributed to the pool.
Most crypto mining applications come with a mining pool; however, crypto enthusiasts now also join together online to create their own mining pools. Because some pools earn more rewards than others, miners are free to change pools whenever they need to. Miners consider official crypto mining pools more reliable since they receive frequent upgrades by their host companies, as well as regular technical support. The best place to find mining pools is CryptoCompare , where miners can compare different mining pools based on their reliability, profitability, and the coin that they want to mine.
Determining whether crypto mining is worthwhile depends on several factors. Generally, crypto mining machines consume a considerable amount of electricity and emit significant heat. For instance, the average ASIC miner will use about 72 terawatts of power to create a bitcoin in about ten minutes.
These figures continue to change as technology advances and mining difficulty increases. Even though the price of the machine matters, it is just as important to consider electricity consumption, electricity costs in the area, and cooling costs, especially with GPU and ASIC mining rigs. It is also important to consider the level of difficulty for the cryptocurrency that an individual wants to mine, in order determine whether the operation would even be profitable.
The taxation of crypto mining remains an important consideration. Crypto miners will generally face tax consequences 1 when they are rewarded with cryptocurrency for performing mining activities, and 2 when they sell or exchange the reward tokens. Mining means providing computing power for the cryptocurrency network protection in exchange for a potential reward for equipment operation. Sadly, many legislators wrongly believe that mining is directly connected to coin creation.
If there are only ten miners out of a million left in the end, the coin creation will not stop and soon regain the same level with adjusted difficulty. Miners provide protection to cryptocurrencies against the potential hold or cancelation of a transaction. More miners mean better protection and lower risk of an attack.
They would make an attack almost impossible due to the lack of necessary mining equipment in the world. Any PoW cryptocurrency network Proof of Work pays miners for this work with their coins by issuing new coins and using transaction fees. Cryptocurrencies are the Central Bank issues money , mining pools are commercial banks prepare transactions, distribute rewards, compete with each other , and miners are clerks do the essential work. Who can we consider a professional miner?
How much experience must they have? The crypto market is highly volatile. They prefer to stick to major, expensive coins with a stable average profit. Sure, there are profitability calculators, so why would you need to know that? Initially, CPUs were considered a universal mining tool that everyone could use on their computer. ASIC is a single-purpose mining device designed for a specific algorithm.
ASICs are produced by a few companies with highly opportunistic pricing policies. They are also notorious for mining on their devices before shipping them to clients. The biggest ASIC issue is its limited use and constantly decreasing cryptocurrency profit as manufacturers are constantly launching newer, much more energy-efficient models. You can sell graphics cards to gamers after the warranty expires or, even better, right before. Most new cryptocurrencies are trying to be as decentralized as possible protecting themselves against ASICs.
The pattern is different for every algorithm. Such use of graphics cards is considered non-standard. GPU load in mining is similar to its load when designing and calculating same-type texture maps in gaming. With more gaming power added due to growing gamer demands, GPUs acquire more computing power. AMD GPU architecture was initially designed to have fewer logic blocks and more stream processors, so it worked better with the first mining algorithms successfully executing a lot of minute operations.
The rest were mining on processors. Modern mining algorithms of new coins require good interaction between core and memory which is beautifully implemented by gaming GPUs, but its hard to implement for ASICs. These two facts have defined mining for years to come.
The basic Nvidia GPU architecture had a significantly lower number of stream processors combined in larger CUDA blocks which made them less efficient for mining until The 9xx series with the Maxwell architecture could already mine ETH at an acceptable hash rate.
Gamers have always appreciated Nvidia graphics cards for their energy efficiency and good cooling systems. The green brand has become associated with optimal energy consumption. With every new series, Nvidia was trying to get ahead of AMD on this parameter. The 10xx series was no exception. In — it was still behind AMD in terms of Ethereum mining power, but it was leading in energy efficiency. Nvidia on 16 nm process achieved better results than AMD on 14 nm the 4xx and 5xx series.
Miners had to increase energy consumption to maintain hash rate which affected energy efficiency. AMD had encountered that problem at the beginning of They solved it by producing special drivers. Then they integrated a special Compute mode in standard drivers. Nvidia solved this problem only for their new series 16xx and 20xx.
Despite the problem of the 10xx series with Ether mining, green cards still have a significant advantage. They are better suited for many other mining algorithms. They wanted to create somewhat unique products. We are not going to talk about hardware. We are mostly interested in operating systems. Most miners can be divided in two groups: Windows and Linux users.
They use ready-made mining operating systems, like RaveOS. Rave OS is a system for miners that allows them to control mining rigs remotely. Rave OS promises stable mining, high hash rate, and minimal down-time that usually leads to losses. You can manage three devices for free. The main advantage of the system is its simplicity. You just have to record an image on the data storage device and connect it to your device. The system automatically detects the model of the equipment, adjusts settings accordingly, and allows you to start mining.
There is an issue with Nvidia graphics cards on Windows. The GPU memory at a standard clock commits a few errors that are not critical when rendering images in games, but they may be critical when making exact calculations. We have a situation where P2 lowers the clock, while a mining device increases it at the same time.
The mining device keeps working, but when you turn it off, P2 switches back, while manually added overclock remains. As a result, the driver crashes when you turn off or restart the mining program. If you use MSI Afterburner to monitor your GPUs every miner should use it , you will notice an increase in operating memory clock when mining and a higher hash rate when mining RAM-dependent algorithms, like Cortex.
Memory clock will not fluctuate, so you can overclock memory safely. You will get a real operating value in MHz, not just a plus sign in the settings. Hot algorithms mostly use GPU core, so their performance depends on the core clock.
The max core clock is achieved by increasing voltage which leads to a proportional increase in GPU power consumption. Cold algorithms mostly use memory, so they are highly limited by bandwidth capacity or memory access time. Maximum efficiency is easily reached on such algorithms.
We need to find out which core clock maximizes hash rate, and then obtain that core clock with the lowest possible stable core voltage. Ethereum algorithm used to be one of the most efficient for the Nvidia 10xx, 16xx, and 20xx series.