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You can also encrypt and decrypt buffers by using the functions defined above. Just pass the buffer in place of the string and it should work:. You can also encrypt and decrypt streams by using the crypto module as shown in the following example:. In this article, we looked at how to perform cryptographic operations on text, buffers, and streams by using Node. This is extremely useful if you need to encrypt sensitive data like secret keys before storing them in a database.
Usually, cryptographic algorithms use something called a key when converting the plaintext to ciphertext. Converting the ciphertext back to plaintext is possible only if you have the right key with you. Therefore, those who have the privilege to view plaintext must store this key under maximum security and not let it fall into the hands of outsiders. While these terms, encryption and cryptography, are sometimes used interchangeably, they are not the same thing. Encryption is the process of converting plaintext to ciphertext using an algorithm.
The opposite of encryption, the process of converting the ciphertext back to plaintext, is called decryption. There are three basic types of cryptography: symmetric-key cryptography, asymmetric-key cryptography, and hashing. In the previous section, we discussed how encryption algorithms use keys when converting plaintext to ciphertext and vice versa. In symmetric-key cryptography, the key used for converting plaintext to ciphertext and the key used for converting ciphertext back to plaintext are the same.
This type of cryptography is simple to implement and faster than its counterpart, asymmetric-key cryptography. But symmetric-key cryptography has one major security concern. When encrypting data transmitted over a network, this method requires both the sender and the receiver to have the key used for encryption in their possession. This creates a scenario where the encryption key could be compromised by a third-party.
When the sender and receiver try to exchange the encryption key over a network, a third party has a chance to steal the key. Especially when the said network is the internet, the risk of exchanging keys is high. Asymmetric-key cryptography was introduced to overcome the security concerns of symmetric-key cryptography. It uses a pair of keys, instead of one, called the public key and private key.
The public key is only used for encrypting data. The private key is only used for decrypting data. Symmetrical and asymmetrical cryptography facilitates the conversion of plaintext to ciphertext and ciphertext back to plaintext. In hashing, however, you only have one option: converting the plaintext to ciphertext.
What you can do instead is checking if another plaintext generates the same hash value to see if the two plaintexts are equal. This is possible because hashing algorithms guarantee that every unique plaintext generates a unique ciphertext. Hashing is often used when storing passwords. Applications never store the plaintext password in their databases. Instead, they store a hash of the password. When authenticating a user, we have to check if the hash generated by the password a user provides is equal to the one stored in the database.
In this section, we will see how to implement encryption using the crypto module. Before we begin, you have to set up your usual Node project environment and install the crypto module using npm. We can use the Cipher class of the crypto module to encrypt data. When encrypting with the crypto module, we have the option to generate a new key every time the encrypt method is called.
Using different keys for encryption makes it harder for attackers to decipher data using brute force. To generate a key, however, we use a common secret for both encryption and decryption.
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