The demise of Spanish Jewry actually began in and this chapter details events aroubd the upheavals of the Jews and the crypto-Jews of Spain. The motives of the rioters of were not as clear-cut as one might think; they have been accused of having pure religious motivations, economic and socioeconomic motives, anti-Semitic tendencies, as well as class resentment. The results of these violent outbreaks were similar whatever the reason and whoever the participant: tremendous loss of Jewish life, perhaps as much as a third of Spanish Jewry; major destruction of property; and also forced conversion and baptism of tens of thousands of Jews.
This was the largest mass forced conversion of Jews in history and the consequences were overwhelming for Jews and the non-Jews. Keywords: Spanish Jewry , Jews , forced conversion , religious motivations , crypto-Jews. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
Please, subscribe or login to access full text content. To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us. All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0. University Press Scholarship Online. Sign in. Not registered? Sign up. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Renee Levine Melammed shows how many "conversas" acted with great courage and commitment to perpetuate their religious heritage, seeing themselves as true daughters of Israel.
Her fascinating book sheds new light on the roles of women in the transmission of Jewish traditions and cultures. The Lives of Judaizing Women after 3. Messianic Turmoil Circa 4. Castilian Conversas at Work 5. The Lopez Women's Tachas 7. The Inquisition and the Midwife 8. Melammed's analysis of the social history of the conversos is invaluable. She uncovers their jobs, servants, social networks, religious practices, and even their diets Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
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Heretics or Daughters of Israel?
Influences are the easy way to gain power points. Whenever there are heretics aboard Space Station 13, influences will randomly spawn across the station. In this state, influences are only visible to heretics. These are untapped and ripe for the picking. After being harvested, the influence vanish temporally. Soon after, it will reappear and change its appearance, becoming a pierced reality.
More importantly, it will become visible to the entire crew. Influences can only be harvested once, so don't waste time trying to collect those that other heretics have already taken! An already harvested influence. Notice the glow. Using a Codex Cicatrix to harvest an influence will reward double the knowledge points. Risk for reward! Once you have some power points, it's time to research! The research menu forms a branching tree see below , and your first selection will be to commit to a path that defines your initial abilities and Final Ascension.
You can earn abilities from other paths to a limited degree, but overall your chosen path will heavily influence your play-style. Eventually, you'll need to start using proper magics. To draw a transmutation rune , you'll need a writing tool, such as a pen or crayon. Activate Mansus Grasp in your offhand and click on the floor to begin drawing a rune. These runes are green and take up a 3x3 area, and while they can go under other objects, it's best to keep them clear for transmutation purposes.
You can remove runes by using your Mansus Grasp on it, and you can also freely use other heretics' runes. To transmute , simply click the rune with an empty hand while the appropriate object s are on top of it, making sure that nothing else is in the way.
Transmutation Rituals allow you to create powerful artifacts, demonic monsters, and many useful tools that will help you progress towards ultimate power. The Codex Cicatrix can also draw and remove runes, and does it as a faster rate than doing it by hand. To cast more advanced spells, you must be wearing a focus. A focus can be made by transmuting a glass sheet and a pair of eyes. This necklace must be worn to gain its effects.
Some more powerful heretic equipment also functions as a focus - Namely, the Ominous Armor from the Armorer's Ritual when the hood is flipped up. The Sickly Blade will be your first unlocked research. It can be created by transmuting a common knife with a secondary ingredient based on your path, and serves as a powerful melee weapon as well as a one time use escape tool. All paths have their own kind of blade, which only differ in appearance and name without any additional research.
As with the Mansus Grasp , your blade will be upgraded by your research over time. Said upgrades will differ depending on the path you choose. You are limited in the amounts of blades you can create at a time - Ash, Void, and Rust limit you to two blades, and Flesh limits you to three. Try not to lose them!
Additionally, you can break your blade by activating it in-hand to teleport to a random, mostly safe location in a pinch. Better to lose your weapon and live another day than die fighting. Where X is usually around 16 and Y around 4. Remember that you start with 4 knowledges already unlocked.
To purchase your Ascension, you must already have completed both of these! There are different aspects of the arcane to which you can devote yourself. While most all rituals and spells can be learned by a single heretic, your first and most important choice will decide how your weapon and grasp will evolve, and how your final ascension will transform you.
Below is a table with all your abilities. Upon choosing a path, you begin at the top of the tree, moving straight downwards; the first few abilities you unlock are thus based on your path. However, some abilities are located between paths, and can be unlocked by moving sideways once you're adjacent to them. In the below tree, dark colored abilities can only be obtained by starting on the corresponding path, green abilities are "neutral" abilities that you can use to cross paths, and light colored abilities can be earned by any path by first going through the neutral ones.
There are also a few optional, dead end knowledges you can research to help improve your ability to progress towards ascension. Carvings are special runes that can be etched into the floor using the Carving Knife, an item gained from researching the Tier 2 Flesh-Void side path. These carvings act as traps that trigger when a victim steps onto one.
You can have up to a maximum of 3 carvings placed at any time, and having carvings placed grants you an ability to destroy all carvings should you ever need to replace them. Crucible Potions or brews are unique consumable items that are created from a Mawed Crucible, a structure gained from researching the Tier 2 Void-Rust side path.
Each kind of potion grants a special buff to you once used. A crucible can make up to 5 individual potions before needing to be refilled with body parts or organs. This page needs revising! Sacrifice people and become all powerful or die trying. Guides: This is the guide. Ordinary left-click.
It doesn't matter if Combat Mode Enable with 4 , disable with 1 or toggle with F by default. Left-clicking people with an empty hand will Harm them if on, or Help them if off. Prevents you from switching places or being pushed when colliding with people. Ordinary right-click. Enable with 4 , disable with 1 or toggle with F by default. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Page Discussion.
Views Read View source View history. Recent changes Random page. Access: Wherever your job has access to Additional Access : Wherever you can break into or teleport to. The Path of Ash revolves around fire, mobility, and crowd control. It grants multiple tools that are very forgiving for a new heretic, including a short range jaunt that works while handcuffed and a mask that slowly saps nearby non-heretics of sanity and soul, and is highly recommended for first-timers.
While its abilities may not be the strongest until later in the round, they are very easy to get the ball rolling with and difficult to stop. Ascending gives you the power to burn down the station in a living tornado of flame. The Path of Flesh focuses on summoning player-controlled minions and demons to do your bidding. Heretics on this path gain almost no offensive or defensive abilities, and rely heavily on stockpiling corpses and organs to complete rituals. Despite this, it offers many fun and powerful tools to those who can make it to the end, making it a difficult but satisfying path overall for inexperienced heretics.
Ascending allows you to shed your human form and become something much greater. The Path of Void focuses on stealth, silence and the freezing cold. While the path offers very little utility early on, they quickly gain the ability to silence and freeze their victims, opening the window to silently ambush targets with no other items or chemicals required. It also offers full immunity to freezing temperatures, an invisible armored cloak with pockets! The path has access to many strong transmuted items, but requires smart use to realize their full potential, making it moderately difficult but a good beginner choice.
Ascending silences those around you and makes you the eye of a deadly blizzard. The Path of Rust is about healing, corruption, and brute forcing through all obstacles, at the cost of stealth. Rust grants you the ability to destroy silicons and mechs in one strike, fry any electronics, and demolish any walls or doors. Most of your abilities will create rust - standing over rust grants you healing and resilience. While you will become immensely resistant standing on rusted tiles, you have very little in the way of tools otherwise, making it a moderately difficult path to take.
Ascending grants you unparalleled healing and survivability when standing over rust and spreads a tide of rust over the station from your rune. Grants you the Mansus Grasp, a powerful and upgradable disabling spell that can be cast without a focus.
Grants you the Living Heart, transforming your heart into a Living Heart, which allows you to track your sacrifice targets. If you lose your Living Heart, you can transmute a new one with a poppy and a pool of blood while standing on a rune.
If your heart is cybernetic, you will additionally need to supply an organic heart in the ritual. If your species doesn 't have a heart, one of your other organs will be used instead - check your research tab in-game to see which. Allows you to sacrifice targets who are in critical or worse condition to the Mansus.
If you have no targets, you can stand on a rune and invoke it to acquire some. Allows you to transmute a sheet of glass and a pair of eyes into an Amber Focus. This is a small neck-worn item that allows you to cast more advanced heretic spells while worn. Locksmith's Secret. Principle of Hunger.
Glimmer of Winter. Blacksmith's Tale. Follow the ashen path. Transmute a knife with a match for an ashen blade. Follow the flesh path. Transmute a knife and a pool of blood into a flesh blade. Follow the void path.
Transmute a knife in a sub-zero temperature into a void blade. Follow the rust path. Transmute a knife and a trash item into a rusty blade. Grasp of Ash. Grasp of Flesh. Grasp of Void. Grasp of Rust. Your mansus grasp now temporarily blinds the people you use it on. Your mansus grasp now raises dead players into ghouls, ONCE per player. They look like husks and have 25 HP.
Your mansus grasp now temporarily mutes your victim 8 seconds and lowers their body temperature. Your mansus grasp now deal damage to inorganic matter. Rusts any surface it's used on, and destroys any surface that is already rusty. Floors and machines can only be attacked if you are on Combat Mode Enable with 4 , disable with 1 or toggle with F by default. Transmute a tank of water into a flask 50u of eldritch water. Heals a bit of everything, harms others a bit in everything.
A jaunt spell that makes you immaterial and pass through walls. Very short duration, you will only manage tiles in a straight line. Transmute a shard of glass with eyes organ to produce an amulet of heatvision. You can see better in the dark, and can see living beings through walls. Transmute a corpse and a poppy into a voiceless death: mute ghouls with 50hp, but no voice.
Limit of 2 at a time. Transmute a glass shard, any item of clothing that you can fit over your uniform and any type of bedsheet. We have created a widget for the Fear and Greed Index, so you can always keep track of the current market situation. To use the widget you need to first install the free Scriptable app from scriptable. The information provided on this website does not constitute investment advice, financial advice, trading advice, or any other sort of advice and you should not treat any of the website's content as such.
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