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You're not disposing of your crypto and these transactions are more akin to a transfer. However , if you receive a token in exchange for your share in the liquidity pool, this could be viewed as a crypto-to-crypto trade and subject to Capital Gains Tax. Each DeFi protocol works slightly differently - your best bet here is to speak to an experienced crypto accountant to ensure you remain tax compliant.
Airdrops and hard forks are taxed as income in the US - so you'll pay Income Tax. The bad news keeps on coming because when you later dispose of an crypto asset you received through an airdrop or hard fork - you'll also pay Capital Gains Tax. To figure out how much Income Tax you need to pay, calculate the fair market value of your airdropped crypto on the day you receive it and apply your income tax rate.
You receive 1INCH tokens from an airdrop. Your tokens are subject to Income Tax, so you need to calculate their total worth. You've already paid Income Tax on your airdropped coins and you later decide you want to sell them so you can invest in something else. Airdropped coins or tokens are viewed exactly the same way as any other cryptocurrency from a tax perspective, so you'll pay Capital Gains Tax when you later dispose of airdropped crypto by selling it, trading it or spending it.
Your cost base for your airdropped coins will be the fair market value on the day you received them. We'll use the same example as above to explain. You sell your airdropped 1INCH tokens a couple of days after. You'll pay the short-term Capital Gains Tax rate as you haven't held your asset for more than a year. You won't pay any tax as a result of a soft fork because you don't receive any new coins or tokens as a result of a soft fork.
So you don't have any income to recognize from a tax perspective. The IRS is very clear that when you receive new coins or tokens due to a hard fork, you'll pay Income Tax as well as Capital Gains Tax for any disposals later on. On the day you receive your new coins, you'll pay Income Tax. Like with airdrops, to calculate the amount of income, you'll identify the fair market value of the coins or tokens on the day you received them.
This figure is also your cost basis. When you later spend, sell or trade coins from a hard fork, you'll pay Capital Gains Tax. Your cost basis the fair market value of the coins or tokens on the day you received them. Subtract your cost basis from your sale price to figure out your capital gain. This is your capital gain. It's good news for US crypto investors when it comes to giving the gift of crypto or spreading the love with a crypto donation.
In most instances, these events are tax free and even tax deductible. This allowance is per person, so you can give multiple gifts up to the limit to different people. You may also need to file a Form if you gift more than the allowance. Rather, the cost basis is inherited by the recipient which will be used to calculate capital gains if they eventually sell the asset.
The good news keeps on coming because whoever you gift your crypto to also doesn't need to pay tax on receipt of the gift. The recipient will inherit the cost basis of the crypto when they're given the gift, so if you're sending a gift, make sure to send this information over to them too.
If you don't have this information yourself, then their cost basis will be the fair market value of the gift on the day they receive it. You'll pay Capital Gains Tax if you dispose of your gifted crypto by selling it, trading it or spending it. The cost base of gifted crypto is inherited.
This means the recipient takes on the cost base of the original asset from the sender. If the cost base of the sender is unknown, you can use the fair market value of the crypto on the day you received it as the cost base. The IRS is very clear that when you donate crypto to a registered charitable organization - you won't realize a capital gain or loss, so you won't pay Capital Gains Tax.
You can even claim charitable donations as a tax deduction. Your charitable contribution deduction will be the fair market value of the crypto on the day you donated it. However, in the United States, check a charity's c 3 status with the IRS' exempt organization database.
A charity must have c 3 status if you plan to deduct your donation on your federal taxes. However, the Income Tax benefits of non-cash donations differ to the tax benefits of cash donations and any donations of crypto will be considered non-cash donations, including stablecoins. Any unused amounts can be carried forward to the following 5 tax years. This was a temporary measure as part of the CARES act; the standard deduction rules apply again from Because of the enhanced deduction available for cash donations, a taxpayer may wish to cash out their crypto first before donating in fiat.
Whether this would be preferable from a tax perspective will depend on the potential Capital Gains Tax owed on the cash-out. It's important to note that if you're self-employed and running a crypto mining business, you'll also need to pay Self Employment Tax to cover your Medicare and social security contributions. Any crypto you receive as a result of mining - you'll pay Income Tax based on the fair market value of the crypto on the day you received it. You'll also pay Capital Gains Tax if you later sell, trade or spend any crypto you received as a result of mining activities.
Confusing - the term staking gets used interchangeably in crypto. It can refer to both DeFi lending and proof-of-stake cryptocurrencies. From a tax perspective, this matters because they may have different tax implications. It's very similar to mining crypto as part of a PoW mechanism - a network participant gets selected to add the latest batch of transactions to the blockchain and earn crypto in exchange.
There is an argument that because you are creating newly generated coins, you should not be taxed on the receipt of the coins - the argument uses the analogy of creation of other property such as a manufacturer creating a computer who would not be taxed on the value of the computer following the completion of manufacturing, but only once sold to an eventual customer.
On the other hand, DeFi lending lets you lend your crypto through a given protocol - like Aave - and receive interest in the form of crypto from borrowers on the other side of the transaction. DeFi lending is much more comparable to a typical lending arrangement whereby you provide capital in return for interest, with the interest rewards being taxable as income. The IRS hasn't released any official guidance on staking rewards and how they're taxed. However, for a long time it was presumed that as proof of stake rewards were similar to mining rewards, they would be taxed in a similar vein.
As above, mined coins are subject to Income Tax based on the fair market value at the point you receive them. However, a recent court case filed against the IRS suggests this might not be the case in the future. A couple who staked Tezos attempted to claim a refund on their staking rewards for - which the IRS denied with no clarification. So they filed against the IRS and were offered a refund in December The couple have refused the refund, stating that they wish to set the legal precedent that staking rewards from PoS should be viewed as the creation of new property and subsequently only subject to Capital Gains Tax on disposal, not Income Tax on receipt of the newly created tokens.
The case is on-going and we'll update this guidance as soon as there is an outcome. The tax for crypto trading such as margin trading, futures and other CFDs is a little complicated, so let's break down the taxes on crypto trading. If you're seen to be trading as an individual investor - you'll pay Capital Gains Tax on profits from margin trades, futures and other CFDs. So when you open a position, you won't pay tax. It's only when you close your position that you'll realize a capital gain or loss and pay Capital Gains Tax.
The same short-term and long-term Capital Gains Tax rates apply to these transactions. When it comes to crypto futures in particular - if you're trading regulated crypto futures, these have a more favorable tax treatment. Of course, the majority of crypto futures products are unregulated so this rule would not apply, but for those trading at scale, it is well worth investigating regulated crypto futures products to benefit from this tax treatment.
In the instance of liquidation - when your collateral is sold - this is a disposal from a tax perspective and therefore should be reported to the IRS. DeFi is still pretty new and it's constantly evolving, offering investors new opportunities to make money. All this to say, the IRS hasn't yet issued clear guidance on specific DeFi transactions and how they're seen from a tax perspective.
Don't jump for joy just yet. That doesn't mean you won't pay any taxes on your DeFi transactions. Instead, investors need to look at the current guidance on crypto transactions and infer the likely tax on their DeFi transactions.
At a basic level, the tax you'll pay depends on whether you're seen to be 'earning' crypto or 'disposing' of crypto. Remember, earning crypto is anytime you're receiving new coins or tokens as a result of your transactions. This would cover many DeFi transactions. Meanwhile, when you're trading, selling or spending tokens on DeFi platforms - this would be subject to Capital Gains Tax. In summary, we can infer that the tax treatment of DeFi would likely break down into the following tax treatments:.
We recommend speaking with an experienced crypto accountant for clear guidance on DeFi tax to remain compliant. Anytime you're seen to be 'earning' from DeFi - whether that's new coins or tokens - it's likely that the IRS will view this as additional income and you'll pay Income Tax based on the fair market value of the asset in USD on the day you received it.
Anytime you sell or trade a coin or token on a DeFi protocol, this is likely to be viewed as a disposal from a tax perspective, making it subject to Capital Gains Tax. You'll pay tax on any profits as a result of a disposal. They are effectively member-owned communities without central leadership. Instead of a small Board of Directors making decisions about the company, DAOs enable the community of token holders members to vote on the future of the organization.
A good example of this is Uniswap. Holders of UNI tokens vote on issues relating to the protocol - for example, how transaction fees are used and what new features to add. For example, they might receive a share of the profits which result from the activities of the DAO or they might sell their DAO tokens to investors. However, given the DAO is not a registered entity in any jurisdiction and has no central control, it cannot pay taxes itself. Under this interpretation, any income passed on to the members of the DAO would likely be subject to Income Tax, and sale of DAO tokens which have appreciated since acquiring them would be subject to capital gains taxes.
Thinking of heading to Home Depot to pay for your renovations in Bitcoin? You might be in for a surprise tax bill because spending your crypto on goods and services is subject to Capital Gains Tax. Spending your crypto is subject to Capital Gains Tax as it's a disposal of an asset. The IRS views this as you selling your crypto for market value.
So you'll need to calculate your cost basis and subsequent capital gain or loss for these transactions. To do this, just take the cost base of your crypto asset and subtract it from the fair market value of your crypto asset in USD on the day you spent it. You need to keep detailed records of your crypto transactions. The IRS says taxpayers need to maintain records that are sufficient to establish the position taken on their tax return.
Therefore as a minimum, you should keep records of your crypto transactions including:. The IRS can audit tax returns from up to six years ago, so best practice is to keep these records for at least six years to ensure you have the information you need should you face an audit. This is easy to do with a crypto tax app like Koinly. It actually gets a lot more complicated at this point. If you've got multiple crypto investments and transactions - it all starts to look like a bit of an uphill battle.
First things first, you'll need to figure out your cost basis. We've talked about cost base a lot throughout this article and on the face of it, it sounds quite simple. However, what happens when you've got multiple assets and transactions in play. So how do you know which to use? Do you go through each transaction and identify each private key and cross-reference that with the transaction? You could, but even our example above is simplistic.
Many crypto investors have hundreds of assets and thousands of trades throughout the year, making this a mountainous task. This is where cost basis accounting methods come in. These methods dictate the way you calculate cost basis for a given financial year. It's good news for American crypto investors because the IRS allows multiple cost basis methods - and these can have a big impact on your crypto tax bill.
The IRS allows:. Of course, these accounting methods have a huge gain on your crypto taxes. You can learn more about the different cost basis accounting methods in our guide , but there are no wrong or right answers here. The right accounting method for you is the one that enables you to pay the least or the most accurate tax on your crypto. It's important to note you can only use one cost basis accounting method in any given financial year - you can't change between the different allowed accounting methods.
The US financial year runs from the 1st of January to the 31st of December each year, so the current financial year is You need to report your crypto taxes for the financial year by the 15th of April the following year as part of your annual tax return, so the next tax deadline is the April 15, As this falls on a weekend - the official tax deadline for is Monday April 18, For US expats, this deadline is June 15, Calculating your crypto taxes - especially if you trade at volume - is time consuming.
You can do it all manually, or you can use a crypto tax calculator like Koinly to save you hours. You'll then need to report all taxable crypto disposals, the proceeds from your disposal and the subsequent capital gain or loss to the IRS yes, every single one , as well as any income from crypto. It's enough to exhaust even the most enthusiastic of mathematicians. But there is an alternative - use Koinly and save hours. You file your crypto taxes with your annual tax return - but you'll need a few other forms to do so.
You can see our complete guide on filing your crypto taxes with the IRS , but in short:. Report crypto disposals, capital gains and losses on: Form Schedule D and Form You can do this with paper forms or through a tax app like TurboTax or TaxAct. We'll walk you through both. Don't get stuck in the busywork. Don't get it wrong. Don't rely on your accountant to know where to look. Use Koinly to generate crypto tax reports. Here's how easy it is:. Koinly integrates with more than crypto exchanges, wallets and blockchains.
See all If you can't find yours, let us know - we're always adding more. Koinly will calculate each capital gain or loss from your disposals, as well as your crypto income and expenses. Head to the tax reports page in Koinly and check out your tax summary. This includes your net capital gains, other gains, income, costs, expenses and any gifts, donations or lost crypto. Download what you need, when you need it. Koinly also generates reports for TurboTax and TaxAct - so all you need to do is upload your Koinly crypto tax report to your chosen tax app file your taxes in minutes.
Let's look at how. We've got a guide on filing your crypto taxes with TurboTax if you want step by step instructions or here's a quick video tutorial on filing crypto taxes with TurboTax:. Here's our guide on filing your crypto taxes with TaxAct. But in summary:. Let's look at these tax forms in some more depth, as well as a couple of others you may need to be familiar with.
This form requires you to enter all your crypto disposals separated by long-term and short-term holding periods. If you are using Koinly, you can generate a pre-filled version of this form in one click. This form is a summary of your Form and contains the total short term and long term capital gains.
Note that if you are only transacting with crypto and stablecoins then you don't need to fill in this form. Details about your foreign exchange accounts along with the maximum fiat value you had on it during the year. Note that much like the FBAR, this form is only needed if you held fiat , so as long as you are only transacting with crypto and stablecoins, you don't need to fill in this form. Details about your foreign exchange accounts along with the maximum fiat value and ending balance during the year.
You can't outright avoid crypto tax in the US - not without breaking the law and facing some harsh penalties! But you can reduce your crypto tax bill with some tax tips. We've got a complete guide on avoiding crypto tax in the US , but in summary:. Utilize tax deductions.
Going for the standard tax deduction isn't always the best way to reduce your tax bill depending on your individual circumstances. Common tax deductions include the child tax credit, medical expenses deduction and k contributions deduction. You may even be able to claim your Koinly plan as a tax preparation fee deduction - provided you're self-employed and not a W2 employee. No Capital Gains Tax for you. So in the right context, bitcoin is positively green.
The Bloomberg piece also examines the environmental cost of running data centers and how the electricity use has reportedly flattened despite the continue growth of such high electrical cost data centers. As society grapples with the growth of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology, several important questions need to be asked. First, to the cryptocurrency community, if the evidence does indeed show that mining of cryptocurrency, and specifically, the proof-of-work algorithm, has grave environmental consequences, what is the next plan of action?
Members of the cryptocurrency space need to be willing to address these questions and ask others as they arise. We ought not ignore the costs of new technology simply because the benefits include financial success. To the general public, what if the end result of investing in more cryptocurrencies and blockchain leads to an overall improvement in quality of life around the world? There are a number of new technologies that could be abandoned smart phones for one to help the environment and reduce carbon footprint, but what is the cost of such a drastic decision?
In the end, are potential environmental costs worth the price of having a functional sound money that can be sent for relatively free across borders without permission from central parties such as government? These are questions that should be considered by the masses who stand to benefit from the growth of cryptocurrency.
If the cryptocurrency community aims to continue making a profit via mining coins they have an incentive to become more efficient and reduce their environmental footprint. This means ideas like Bitcoin Green and Lightning Network among others will need to be explored if this new technology is to achieve its true potential. Other Research and Its Critics The new research echoes past studies on cryptocurrency and energy consumption.
Critics of this research have rightfully pointed out the many variables involved in understanding the energy usage of cryptocurrency mining.
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Every single Bitcoin transaction—even buying a latte—consumes. crptocurrencyupdates.com › /10/26 › bitcoin-electricity-consumption-carbon-footprin. Source: EIA, Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index·Country usage numbers are from Electricity cost for miners is assumed to.