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The DLT Act included a new type of license category for cryptocurrency trading venues. In , the Swiss Federal Council voted in favor of a proposal to further adapt existing financial regulations to cryptocurrencies in order to address their illegal use. Cryptocurrencies are broadly considered legal across the European Union, but cryptocurrency exchange regulations are different in individual member states.
In , the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that exchanges of traditional currency for cryptocurrency should be exempt from VAT. In December , 6AMLD came into effect: the directive made cryptocurrency compliance more stringent by adding cybercrime to the list of money laundering predicate offenses.
Cryptocurrency exchanges are not currently regulated at a regional level. Authorizations and licenses granted by these regulators can then passport exchanges, allowing them to operate under a single regime across the entire bloc. Under the directive, liability for money laundering offenses is extended to legal persons as well as individuals, meaning that the leadership employees of cryptocurrency wallet providers and cryptocurrency exchanges must exercise much greater oversight of their internal AML controls.
The EU is actively exploring further cryptocurrency regulations. An EU draft document expressed concerns about the risks associated with private digital currencies and confirmed that the European Central Bank was considering the possibility of issuing its own digital currency. The proposal set out draft regulatory measures for cryptocurrencies including the introduction of a new licensing system for crypto-asset issuers, industry conduct rules, and new consumer protections.
In July , the European Commission published a set of legislative proposals with consequences for virtual asset service providers VASP across the bloc. The proposals will see transfer of fund regulations TFR extended to all VASPs in the EU, and will mandate the collection of information about senders and recipients of cryptocurrency transfers. Malta has taken a very progressive approach to cryptocurrencies, positioning itself as a global leader in crypto regulation.
The legislation comprised several bills, including the Virtual Financial Assets Act VFA which set a global precedent by establishing a regulatory regime applicable to crypto exchanges, ICOs, brokers, wallet providers, advisers, and asset managers. The VFA regulations effective November were accompanied by the Innovative Technology Arrangements and Services Act which established the regime for the future registration, and accountability, of crypto service providers.
The Malta Digital Innovation Authority was also established: the MDIA is the government authority responsible for creating crypto policy, collaborating with other nations and organizations, and enforcing ethical standards for the use of crypto and blockchain technology. The Maltese government has also indicated that it will turn its focus to the integration of AI with cryptocurrency regulation and may implement specific guidelines for security token offerings. With those strategies in mind, additional Maltese regulations are likely in the near future.
Cryptocurrency regulations in Estonia are open and innovative , especially in comparison to other EU member-states. Accordingly, it classifies them as digital assets for tax purposes but does not subject them to VAT. In , the Anti Money Laundering and Terrorism Finance Act introduced robust new regulations for crypto businesses operating in Estonia.
Cryptocurrency exchanges are legal in Estonia and operate under a well-defined regulatory framework that includes strict reporting and KYC rules. In , the Estonian government passed legislation tightening licensing requirements and went further in , asserting that virtual currency service providers would be treated the same manner as financial institutions under the Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Prevention Act.
In late , the Estonian government revoked over 1, operating licenses after legislative amendments rendered many cryptocurrency service providers non-compliant with regulations. The draft bill created fears that Estonia was banning private ownership of cryptocurrencies, and prompted the government to issue a press release in January clarifying that the law would only apply to private wallets issued by VASPs.
Gibraltar is a global leader in cryptocurrency regulation. Cryptocurrency is not considered legal tender in the country but cryptocurrency exchanges are legal and operate within a well-defined regulatory framework. Gibraltar has a reputation as a low taxation environment : it does not impose capital gains or dividend tax on cryptocurrencies, and crypto exchanges are subject to a business-friendly In September , Gibraltar updated its DLT framework regulations to better align with FATF recommendations, taking into account the higher risk factors associated with some virtual asset instruments.
In , Gibraltar convened a Market Integrity working group to further define appropriate market standards for cryptocurrency exchanges in coordination with standards set by other jurisdictions such as the UK and the EU. If sanctioned by the Gibraltar Financial Services Commission , the move would pave the way for a fully-regulated exchange dealing in both fiat and digital currencies.
In , authorities issued advice on the tax treatment of cryptocurrencies which, in a business context, depends on the type of transaction involved. Following those statements, in early lawmakers passed legislation that gave blockchain technology transactions the same legal status as those executed using traditional methods. Cryptocurrency exchanges in Luxembourg are regulated by the CSSF and new crypto businesses must obtain a payments institutions license if they wish to begin trading.
In Latin America, cryptocurrency regulations run the legislative spectrum. Those countries with harsher regulations include Bolivia which has comprehensively banned cryptocurrencies and exchanges , and Ecuador which has issued a ban on the circulation of all cryptocurrencies apart from the government-issued SDE token in operation from to By contrast, in Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela and Chile, cryptocurrencies are commonly accepted as payment by retail outlets and merchants.
For tax purposes, cryptocurrencies are often treated as assets. They are broadly subject to capital gains tax across the region while transactions in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile are also subject to income tax in some contexts. In September , El Salvador became the first country in Latin America to make Bitcoin legal tender, issuing a government digital wallet app, and allowing consumers to use the tokens in all transactions alongside payments with the US dollar. Cryptocurrency exchange regulations in Latin America are sparse.
Many countries have no specific laws governing the trade of cryptocurrencies and so, beyond the scope of existing legislation, do not regulate exchanges. The lack of regulation combined with high adoption rates has made Latin America an attractive option for businesses looking to capitalize on the interest in virtual currencies. Subsequent court rulings have offered protection to these exchanges for the time being but it is clear that more definitive guidelines are needed.
In contrast to other Latin American countries, Mexico does, to an extent, regulate cryptocurrency exchanges through the Law to Regulate Financial Technology Companies. The law extends Mexican AML regulations to cryptocurrency services providers by imposing a variety of registration and reporting requirements. Many Latin American countries have expressed concern about the effect of cryptocurrencies on financial stability — and about their money laundering risks.
Beyond issuing official warnings , however, most financial authorities across the region have yet to reveal plans for any significant future cryptocurrency regulations. Some exceptions have emerged: Chile, for example, introduced draft cryptocurrency legislation in April but has offered scant detail on the legislation since, or how it will function if it comes into effect.
Mexico has also announced plans to release its own digital currency by , seeking to take advantage of advances in payment technology to promote financial inclusion. In , in coordination with crypto exchanges, Colombia introduced a sandbox test environment for cryptocurrencies in order to help firms try out their business models in respect of draft legislation. Want to meet and exceed the expectations of regulators around the world?
Find out how ComplyAdvantage works with crypto businesses here. Disclaimer: This is for general information only. The information presented does not constitute legal advice. ComplyAdvantage accepts no responsibility for any information contained herein and disclaims and excludes any liability in respect of the contents or for action taken based on this information. Request Demo Login. Download now. The content in this article was last updated in February United States Cryptocurrencies: Not considered legal tender Cryptocurrency exchanges: Legal, regulation varies by state While it is difficult to find a consistent legal approach at the state level, the US continues to progress in developing federal cryptocurrency legislation.
Future Regulation The US Treasury has emphasized an urgent need for crypto regulations to combat global and domestic criminal activities. Canada Cryptocurrencies: Not legal tender Cryptocurrency exchanges: Legal, required to register with FinTRAC after June 1, Cryptocurrencies are not legal tender in Canada but can be used to buy goods and services online or in stores that accept them.
Exchanges After an amendment to the PCMLTFA in , exchanges in Canada are essentially regulated in the same way as money services businesses and are subject to the same due diligence and reporting obligations. Future Regulation While regulations are constantly evolving, there are no signs of significant additional legislation on the horizon. Singapore Cryptocurrencies: Not legal tender Cryptocurrency exchanges: Legal, registration with the Monetary Authority of Singapore required In Singapore, cryptocurrency exchanges and trading are legal, and the city-state has taken a friendlier position on the issue than some of its regional neighbors.
Exchanges MAS has generally taken an accommodating approach to cryptocurrency exchange regulation, applying existing legal frameworks where possible. Australia Cryptocurrencies: Legal, treated as property Cryptocurrency exchanges: Legal, must register with AUSTRAC Cryptocurrencies and exchanges are legal in Australia, and the country has been progressive in its implementation of cryptocurrency regulations.
Exchanges Cryptocurrency exchange regulations in Japan are similarly progressive. South Korea Cryptocurrencies: Not legal tender Cryptocurrency Exchanges: Legal, must register with FSS In South Korea, cryptocurrencies are not considered legal tender and exchanges, while legal, are part of a closely-monitored regulatory system.
Exchanges In June , China banned all domestic cryptocurrency mining , and followed-up by outlawing cryptocurrencies outright in September India Cryptocurrencies: Not legal tender Cryptocurrency exchanges: Regulations being considered Cryptocurrencies are not legal tender in India and the status of exchanges remains murky, as new regulations are being considered. Exchange Regulations Cryptocurrency exchange regulations in India have grown increasingly strict.
There are no residency requirements as of now while applying for such a license. If the application process is completed well, a license holder can carry out its transaction freely. These codes are used to identify operations:. This license is obtained for a local company and for this purpose the next documents are required:.
The total price for the entire process may be around USD 34, and it includes:. If we speak about a timeframe for establishing a new crypto company in the UAE, this may take approximately 4 weeks. As of today, there is no crypto law in the UAE.
According to it, the following requirements must be met by a company that performs actions with crypto assets:. As cryptocurrency projects in the UAE are yet to become fully regulated, the legal status of cryptocurrencies is only constituted by practices and guidelines for now. According to the ADGM regulations, whether crypto is allowed or not is determined separately for each case. It seems reasonable to say that the main cryptocurrencies are legal in this country because DMCC already issued crypto licenses to companies that use them.
Moreover, Crypto Bulls Exchange is the first crypto exchange that is expected to be officially registered in Dubai. As the country embraces new technologies and even plans to issue an official cryptocurrency, friendly legislation is expected. Nowadays, a license to work with cryptocurrencies, such as cold storage or trading with personal funds can be obtained from the DMCC.
As for crypto exchanges, the first one is yet to be registered, so there is no public information regarding the crypto license it will use. No income taxes in the UAE for cryptocurrency projects is what makes this country very appealing for entrepreneurs.
The tax of cryptos in Dubai equals zero percent if you use cryptocurrencies for trading or receive them as a salary. You should seek separate consultation to determine for sure whether your project is VAT-exempt or not. Thus, while there can be some exceptions, the taxation of cryptocurrencies is generally not performed in the UAE. If you decide to open a crypto exchange in the UAE, you will be among the first people to do that.
This implies certain difficulties, such as diving into existing regulation deeper than most crypto projects have to. Registering a cryptocurrency exchange might be difficult, but it is not impossible. As we mentioned before, there is information that the first completely legal crypto exchange will start operating in The Crypto Bulls Exchange is said to be supported by the government, and it will offer cryptocurrencies in trading pairs with Arab Emirate Dirham.
Opening an exchange probably requires a license for crypto exchange. Moreover, the document lists additional requirements exchanges must meet, such as monitoring, identifying, and managing operational risks or preventing market misconduct. It is unclear for now what kind of license, if any, Crypto Bulls Exchange has obtained. Was it approved by the FSRA?
Since this exchange will open in Dubai, perhaps it managed to receive a DMCC crypto license for its operation. This is yet to be determined. If you want to launch an ICO in this country, make sure you are offering security tokens, because otherwise, the Authority will not regulate it.
You can find an economic advisor to determine the primary purpose of your tokens.
The ultimate goal of DAC8 is to limit opportunities for bad actors to take advantage of potential loopholes in cryptoasset-related legislation. The state proposals include bills to exempt cryptocurrency from securities laws intended to protect investors from fraud. Other legislation. Lok Sabha, has invited top crypto stakeholders for an official meeting. voiced concerns about cryptocurrencies being accepted as legal.