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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List article detailing notable cryptocurrencies. Economics of Networks Journal. Date accessed August 28, Miami Herald. Retrieved January 24, ISBN Retrieved January 14, A guide to some other crypto currencies". Wired UK. Association for Computing Machinery. ISSN The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved July 24, Retrieved February 4, Dogecoin Analysis Report.
Accessed December 28, Retrieved December 14, Archived from the original PDF on March 5, Retrieved April 11, Retrieved January 20, Pacific Standard. Retrieved January 18, MIT Technology Review. NxtWiki — Whitepaper. Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved December 21, March 5, The Wall Street Journal.
Vice Magazine. Retrieved June 18, Payout Magazine. Retrieved November 18, International Business Times. Archived from the original on January 1, Retrieved February 10, November 29, Archived from the original PDF on December 25, Retrieved December 25, Retrieved November 26, Retrieved April 27, Retrieved December 27, Retrieved June 25, Elite Plus Magazine. Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved May 5, Finance Magnates. December 6, Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved December 29, Retrieved January 8, The Nation Thailand.
Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved September 14, IO Documents". February 10, — via GitHub. Retrieved October 25, The combinatorics of the longest-chain rule: Linear consistency for proof-of-stake blockchains PDF Technical report. Fast Company.
Retrieved July 2, The New Yorker. Retrieved January 11, January 13, Archived from the original PDF on January 14, Retrieved January 13, Retrieved August 30, The coin is not sold on any major cryptocurrency exchange. No shops are known to accept it. Proof of authority Proof of personhood Proof of space Proof of stake Proof of work. Ethereum Ethereum Classic. Auroracoin Bitconnect Coinye Dogecoin Litecoin.
Bitcoin Gold Zcash. The technology underlying cryptocurrencies has been said to have powerful applications in various sectors ranging from healthcare to media. With that said, cryptocurrencies remain controversial. It will also examine the outstanding issues surrounding the space, including their evolving accounting and regulatory treatment.
Cryptocurrencies are digital assets that use cryptography , an encryption technique, for security. Cryptocurrencies are primarily used to buy and sell goods and services, though some newer cryptocurrencies also function to provide a set of rules or obligations for its holders—something we will discuss later.
They possess no intrinsic value in that they are not redeemable for another commodity, such as gold. Unlike traditional currency, they are not issued by a central authority and are not considered legal tender. Objectively, cryptocurrencies are not necessary because government-backed currencies function adequately. For most adopters, the advantages of cryptocurrencies are theoretical.
Therefore, mainstream adoption will only come when there is a significant tangible benefit of using a cryptocurrency. So what are the advantages to using them? Buying goods and services with cryptocurrencies takes place online and does not require disclosure of identities. However, a common misconception about cryptocurrencies is that they guarantee completely anonymous transactions.
What they actually offer is pseudonymity , which is a near-anonymous state. They allow consumers to complete purchases without providing personal information to merchants. However, from a law enforcement perspective, a transaction can be traced back to a person or entity. Still, amid rising concerns of identity theft and privacy, cryptocurrencies can offer advantages to users. One of the biggest benefits of cryptocurrencies is that they do not involve financial institution intermediaries.
With cryptocurrencies, even if a portion were compromised, the remaining portions would continue to be able to confirm transactions. Still, cryptocurrencies are not completely immune from security threats. Fortunately, most of the funds were restored. Certain cryptocurrencies can confer other benefits to their holders, including limited ownership and voting rights.
Cryptocurrencies could also include fractional ownership interests in physical assets such as art or real estate. Blockchain technology underlies Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies. It relies on a public, continuously updating ledger to record all transactions that take place. Blockchain is groundbreaking because it allows transactions to be processed without a central authority—such as a bank, the government, or a payments company.
The buyer and seller interact directly with each other, removing the need for verification by a trusted third-party intermediary. It thus cuts out costly middlemen and allows businesses and services to be decentralized. Another distinguishing feature of blockchain technology is its accessibility for involved parties. With blockchain, you and your friend would view the same ledger of transactions.
The ledger is not controlled by either of you, but it operates on consensus, so both of you need to approve and verify the transaction for it to be added to the chain. The chain is also secured with cryptography , and significantly, no one can change the chain after the fact.
From a technical perspective, the blockchain utilizes consensus algorithms , and transactions are recorded in multiple nodes instead of on one server. A node is a computer connected to the blockchain network, which automatically downloads a copy of the blockchain upon joining the network. For a transaction to be valid, all nodes need to be in agreement. Though blockchain technology was conceived as part of Bitcoin in , there may be many other applications.
Technology consulting firm CB Insights has identified 27 ways it can fundamentally change processes as diverse as banking, cybersecurity, voting, and academics. The Swedish government, for example, is testing the use of blockchain technology to record land transactions , which are currently recorded on paper and transmitted through physical mail. Effective mining requires both powerful hardware and software.
To address this, miners often join pools to increase collective computing power, allocating miner profits to participants. Groups of miners compete to verify pending transactions and reap the profits, leveraging specialized hardware and cheap electricity. This competition helps to ensure the integrity of transactions. Cryptocurrency exchanges are websites where individuals can buy, sell, or exchange cryptocurrencies for other digital currency or traditional currency.
The exchanges can convert cryptocurrencies into major government-backed currencies, and can convert cryptocurrencies into other cryptocurrencies. Almost every exchange is subject to government anti-money laundering regulations, and customers are required to provide proof of identity when opening an account.
Instead of exchanges, people sometimes use peer-to-peer transactions via sites like LocalBitcoins , which allow traders to avoid disclosing personal information. In a peer-to-peer transaction, participants trade cryptocurrencies in transactions via software without the involvement of any other intermediary. Cryptocurrency wallets are necessary for users to send and receive digital currency and monitor their balance. Wallets can be either hardware or software, though hardware wallets are considered more secure.
While the transactions and balances for a bitcoin account is recorded on the blockchain itself, the private key used to sign new transactions is saved inside the Ledger wallet. When you try to create a new transaction, your computer asks the wallet to sign it and then broadcasts it to the blockchain. Since the private key never leaves the hardware wallet, your bitcoins are safe, even if your computer is hacked.
In contrast, a software wallet such as the Coinbase wallet is virtual. Coinbase introduced its Vault service to increase the security of its wallet. Released in by someone under the alias Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin is the most well known of all cryptocurrencies. Despite the complicated technology behind it, payment via Bitcoin is simple. In a transaction, the buyer and seller utilize mobile wallets to send and receive payments.
The list of merchants accepting Bitcoin continues to expand, including merchants as diverse as Microsoft, Expedia, and Subway, the sandwich chain. Although Bitcoin is widely recognized as pioneering, it is not without limitations. For example, it can only process seven transactions a second. By contrast, Visa handles thousands of transactions per second.
The time it takes to confirm transactions has also risen. Not only is Bitcoin slower than some of its alternatives, but its functionality is also limited. Other currencies like Bitcoin include Litecoin , Zcash and Dash , which claim to provide greater anonymity. Ether and currencies based on the Ethereum blockchain have become increasingly popular. However, issues with Ethereum technology have since caused declines in value.
Ethereum has seen its share of volatility. Put simply, smart contracts are computer programs that can automatically execute the terms of a contract. With traditional operations, numerous contracts would be involved just to manufacture a single console, with each party retaining their own paper copies. However, combined with blockchain, smart contracts provide automated accountability. Smart contracts can be leveraged in a few ways: When a truck picks up the manufactured consoles from the factory, the shipping company scans the boxes.
Beyond payments, a given worker in production could scan their ID card, which is then verified by third-party sources to ensure that they do not violate labor policies. As mentioned previously, cryptocurrency has no intrinsic value—so why all the fuss? People invest in cryptocurrencies for a couple primary reasons. Apart from pure speculation, many invest in cryptocurrencies as a geopolitical hedge. During times of political uncertainty, the price of Bitcoin tends to increase.
Bitcoin is not the only cryptocurrency with limits on issuance. The supply of Litecoin will be capped at 84 million units. The purpose of the limit is to provide increased transparency in the money supply, in contrast to government-backed currencies. With the major currencies being created on open source codes, any given individual can determine the supply of the currency and make a judgment about its value accordingly.
Applications of the Cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrencies require a use case to have any value. The same dynamic applies to cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin has value as a means of exchange; alternate cryptocurrencies can either improve on the Bitcoin model, or have another usage that creates value, such as Ether. As uses for cryptocurrencies increase, corresponding demand and value also increase. Regulatory Changes. Because the regulation of cryptocurrencies has yet to be determined, value is strongly influenced by expectations of future regulation.
In an extreme case, for example, the United States government could prohibit citizens from holding cryptocurrencies, much as the ownership of gold in the US was outlawed in the s. Technology Changes. Unlike physical commodities, changes in technology affect cryptocurrency prices. July and August saw the price of Bitcoin negatively impacted by controversy about altering the underlying technology to improve transaction times.
Conversely, news reports of hacking often lead to price decreases. Still, given the volatility of this emerging phenomenon, there is a risk of a crash.
Crypto is Coined. Economic Crisis Strikes. New Liberty Standard.