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Belarus Ukraine. Follow Us. Previous Next. June 16, GMT. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of this agreement, [because] Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are considered the two main links in the [chain of] trade that exists between Central Asia and the Caspian region. Kazakh Momentum Nazarbaev noted that his country needs as many export outlets as possible, if only because its oil production is expected to continue increasing in the next 10 years.
As I keep saying, Kazakhstan's oil [and] Kazakhstan gas are worthless if they remain underground," Nazarbaev said. Huge new [oil] facilities will start operating along the Caspian shore near Baku, Azerbaijan, and along our own Caspian shore. Caspian Energy Special.
Construction normally will take six to eight weeks as the project passes through an area, and measures will be taken to minimise noise, dust and traffic during this period. Typically, soil will be stripped and levelled along the route and a trench at least one metre deep will be dug. Sections of pipe, coated protectively to prevent corrosion, will be stored along the route before being delivered to the trench site.
Then the pipe sections will be welded together, lowered into the trench and covered with excavated material. Average pipeline lay rates are estimated at metres each day. Topsoil and subsoil are stored separately to ensure rapid and effective reinstatement of the ground. Finally the terrain is reseeded and replanted to restore it to its original form.
From the outset, a sustained effort has been made to ensure that all stakeholders-including governments, non-governmental organizations NGOs , international scientists and experts, local communities and local interest groups-have been able to scrutinise the plans and exchange information, ideas and potential solutions. Left: Chirag production platform in the Caspian Sea. During this process almost 20, landowners and users whose land will be crossed during construction have negotiated with BTC Co.
In Turkey, workshops and meetings have been attended by about NGO representatives and 60 press organizations, while face-to-face interviews have been held with nearly 2, households along the route. Similarly exhaustive consultations have taken place in Azerbaijan and Georgia.
A key objective has been to minimise in advance the impact of the project on daily life as far as possible and to offer fair compensation for damage or loss of income. A clearly defined method is now in place to resolve any disputes that may arise in the future.
The consultations so far have highlighted a number of issues, including the impact of the project on the environment, land compensation, safety security and health, reinstatement of land and the possible impact of construction workers and construction camps on local residents. These issues have been addressed in the project route and design and its comprehensive management plans. Communication and consultation will continue throughout construction of the pipeline.
Teams of locally recruited community relations staff will be on hand to share information with community leaders on a regular basis. Plans are also being drawn up for community liaison during the operational phase of the pipeline. Modifying the Route One key principle guided the choice of route for the BTC project-that it is far better to avoid creating a social or environmental problem than it is to mitigate one that could have been averted.
Throughout route selection, a number of factors dictated how decisions were made. Known sensitive areas or areas of high population density were avoided. So were known cultural monuments, archaeological sites and geohazards. The safety of both the construction and operation of the pipeline was a central issue, as was the need to minimize the risk of oil spills. In addition, the amount of land needed was reduced to a minimum-the working width for the BTC pipeline is 32 metres in Azerbaijan and Georgia, reducing to 28 metres in Turkey.
The aim always is to make no more disturbance than is necessary for safe working. Left: Approximately new positions will be created for Azerbaijani workers related to the operation of the BTC Pipeline. Below: Chirag production platform in the Caspian Sea. An initial selection involved detailed walking along the route by engineers, environmentalists, sociologists, archaeologists, botanists and zoologists, who produced a "preferred corridor" and subsequently a metre-wide "specified corridor" which was then presented to the host governments.
Later a number of alterations were made. For example, in Turkey a total of archaeological sites have been revealed within a one-kilometre corridor along the route, most of which have been avoided. In Azerbaijan, where the BTC project mostly runs parallel to an existing pipeline, any significant deviations have been the result of environmental considerations.
In all, some route changes have been made since the start of the project. One result of this meticulous process is that not a single person will have to move from their home. And an important side benefit of all this painstaking work is the major contribution the project is making to the scientific understanding of the environment and cultural heritage along the BTC route. Operating the Pipeline The distance from Baku to Ceyhan by pipeline is 1, kilometres km in Azerbaijan, km in Georgia and 1, km in Turkey.
Along the way there will be eight pump stations, one pressure reduction station, four metering stations and 98 block valves. Sangachal terminal, on the shores of the Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan, marks the starting point of the route, while a marine terminal at Ceyhan, adjoining the Mediterranean Sea in Turkey, represents the end of the long journey.
Sangachal, originally completed in and able to export both oil and gas, is now being expanded to handle increased oil production from the ACG field. This project will be completed in and involves installing extra storage tanks and equipment to meter and prepare crude oil for delivery into the pipeline. At Ceyhan, a new facility on a hectare site is set to be operational in This includes a tank farm of seven oil storage tanks, a metering system and a housing compound. Also under construction is a 2.
Here tankers of between 80, and , tonnes will be loaded with crude oil for delivery to refineries around the world. Between Baku and Ceyhan, key installations include the eight pumping stations-each designed to minimize intrusion into the landscape and all permanently manned.
These stations will provide hydraulic power to boost oil flow through the pipeline as well as give access for regular cleaning and inspection. Valves designed to block the flow of oil will be positioned at approximately kilometre intervals to enable sections of the pipeline to be isolated in an emergency. Several stations will include metering facilities to measure the flow of oil. It is these measurements which will give the statistical basis on which taxes and other payments are made by the BTC Co.
Before the first crude oil is introduced into the pipeline, the entire structure will be pressure tested thoroughly, using water to prove its strength and integrity. Overall control of the pipeline will be carried out from Sangachal. Everyone working on the project, including contractors, will receive professional skills training to ensure safe and reliable operation. Closed circuit television will operate at intermediate pump stations and other facilities backed up by an advanced security system.
The route will be inspected regularly by BTC Co. During the two-year construction phase, approximately 10, workers-skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled and many from communities along the route-will be employed, including 5, in Turkey, 2, in Georgia and 2, in Azerbaijan.
Subsequently, about permanent pipeline jobs will be created in the three countries for staff who will operate the pipeline and Sangachal and Ceyhan terminals. Local businesses can expect to benefit by supplying a wide range of goods and services to the project during and after the construction phase, while landowners and users affected by the pipeline will receive fair compensation for any loss or damage they may sustain.
Once the project is operating, it will generate new revenues for each host country through tariffs related to the flow of oil. Beyond this, a range of community and environmental investment programmes will be set up by BTC Co. The aim of these projects is to provide some immediate improvements to the quality of life in communities along the BTC route and also schemes which will provide sustainable economic opportunities for local populations. The goal has been to ensure that issues arising from the pipeline are identified and, where possible, eliminated or offset before construction begins.
In each country, this began with an information-gathering exercise designed to gain broad understanding of the project and the social and environmental conditions along the likely route. During this process, meetings were held with a wide range of informed national and international opinion-formers together with local communities on the pipeline route. Over time, these meetings became more and more interactive, involving exchanges of information and ideas.
Subsequently, several in-depth environmental and social surveys were undertaken. Throughout this process, four objectives were kept firmly in focus-the need to minimize the BTC "footprint" and do no lasting damage to the environment; the obligation to create no new access routes; the commitment by BTC Co.
In the summer of the three ESIAs were published, identifying many measures that will be implemented to lessen the environmental and social impact of the pipeline. Sixty days were then allowed for public reaction before the final reports were submitted to the three governments in October.
Energy Information Administration has estimated that the Caspian could hold between 17 billion and 33 billion barrels of proven oil. Other experts estimate the Caspian could hold "possible reserves" of up to billion barrels of oil. By comparison, Saudi Arabia has billion barrels of oil and the United States 23 billion Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan.
Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia. Belarus Ukraine. Follow Us. Previous Next. June 16, GMT. Construction of the pipeline has contributed to the economies of the host countries. Turkey also benefits from an increase of commerce in the port of Ceyhan and other parts of eastern Anatolia, the region which had experienced significant decrease in economic activities since the Gulf War in To counter concerns that oil money would be siphoned off by corrupt officials, Azerbaijan set up a state oil fund SOFAZ , mandated with using revenue from natural resources to benefit future generations, bolster support from key international lenders, and improve transparency and accountability.
Concerns have been addressed about the security of the pipeline. On 5 August , a major explosion and fire in Refahiye eastern Turkey Erzincan Province closed the pipeline. There is circumstantial evidence that it was instead a sophisticated cyber attack on the line's control and safety systems that led to increased pressure and an explosion. The attack might have been related to the Russo-Georgian War , which started two days later.
In September , unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh's defense minister, Levon Mnatsakanyan, was cited as saying: "This is a very serious financial resource for Azerbaijan and we need to deprive them of these means". Critics of the pipeline have pointed out it should be properly earthquake engineered because it travels through three active faults in Azerbaijan, four in Georgia and seven in Turkey. Environmental activists fiercely opposed the crossing of the watershed of the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park in Georgia, an area known for mineral water springs and natural beauty, although the pipeline itself does not enter the park.
The Oxford-based "Baku Ceyhan Campaign" stated that "public money should not be used to subsidize social and environmental problems, purely in the interests of the private sector, but must be conditional on a positive contribution to the economic and social development of people in the region. The field joint coating of the pipeline has been controversial over the claim that SPC , the sealant used, was not properly tested.
The pipeline eliminates tanker cargoes per year through the sensitive congested Bosphorus and Dardanelles. Human rights activists criticized Western governments for the pipeline, due to reported human and civil rights abuses by the Aliyev regime in Azerbaijan. One of the central characters, Elektra King , is responsible for the construction of an oil pipeline through the Caucasus, from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Named the "King pipeline" in the film, it is a thinly disguised version of the BTC. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Oil pipeline. Turkish lira Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey — currency and debt crisis. Stock exchange. Major projects. Related topics. Azerbaijan portal Turkey portal Georgia country portal Energy portal. First pipeline opens from Caspian Sea.
Azerbaijan International. Retrieved Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 December Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 January Turkish Weekly. Downstream Today. Archived from the original on 25 January Frontiers Magazine : 18— August Archived from the original PDF on Cornell, Fariz Ismailzade Archived PDF from the original on International Energy Agency.
October Upstream Online. Archived from the original on 20 January Polglase, Najaf Museyibli, Jared M. Koller, and Troy A. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. Accessed July 22, Axis Information and Analysis. Financial Times. Retrieved 5 June Seattle Times. RIA Novosti. International Monetary Fund.
Today's Zaman. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Mark Tran The Guardian.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline is a 1, kilometres long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It connects Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan and Ceyhan, a port on the. The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a 1, kilometres (1, mi) long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in. Baku-Tbilisi Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline carries oil from the Azeri-Chirag-Deepwater Gunashli (ACG) field and condensate from Shah Deniz across Azerbaijan.